Aiming to expedite the discovery of high-performance polyimides, we utilize computational methods of machine learning (ML) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We first build a comprehensive library of more than 8 million hypothetical polyimides based on the polycondensation of existing dianhydride and diamine/diisocyanate molecules. Then we establish multiple ML models for the thermal and mechanical properties of polyimides based on their experimentally reported values, including glass transition temperature, Young’s modulus, and tensile yield strength. The obtained ML models demonstrate excellent predictive performance in identifying the key chemical substructures influencing the thermal and mechanical properties of polyimides. Applying the well-trained ML models, we obtain property predictions of the 8 million hypothetical polyimides. Then, we screen the whole hypothetical dataset and identify three (3) best-performing novel polyimides that have better-combined properties than existing ones through Pareto frontier analysis.