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Meeting 2020 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2020 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Investigation of Thermally Assisted Friction Element Welding
Author(s) Amit Bajirao Deshpande, Tyler J Grimm, Laine Mears
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Amit Bajirao Deshpande
Abstract Scope Friction Element Welding holds promising results among multi-material joining processes for high strength alloy joints. This novel process seeks to eliminate inherent limitations of traditional joining processes. Joining of materials with different thermal properties has its own challenges. Fusion welding processes like RSW fall short because of differences in melting temperatures of the base alloys. Differences in thermal expansion is also a limiting factor since it results in residual thermal stresses due to unequal cooling. Processes such as Self Piercing Riveting (SPR), Flow Drill Screwing (FDS), and clinching were developed to avoid using heat energy to melt the base materials. These processes form solid state joints by mechanical interlocking and hence overcome the limitations of fusion-based joining processes. This makes the use of lightweight and high strength materials possible in structural components of vehicles. Alloys such as dual and complex phase steels, high martensitic and boron steels, and magnesium alloys can be introduced along with lightweight, high strength aluminum alloys in order to significantly reduce weight. However, since processes like SPR and FDS are designed to form holes in high strength metal sheets, they are limited by thickness and strength of the base metals. In other research, it was found that for regular SPR processes, it is difficult to pierce rivet in 2 mm AZ31 magnesium sheet owing to its low ductility. They developed modifications to the process in order to increase the effectiveness of joint formation, resulting in increased joint strength. Similar limitations for SPR process were discovered, with limited capabilities to join only 2 mm thick sheets of 1000 MPa steel. Others described limitations of the FDS process with only 1 mm thick sheets of 600 MPa steel. This limitation occurs since the joining element must pierce through high strength sheets. Friction element welding overcomes this limitation and provides advantages of joining high strength base metals with relatively soft cover plates. The process is accomplished in four steps: 1) penetration, 2) cleaning, 3) welding, and 4) compression. Each step is controlled by a parameter such as spindle speed, axial force, time, and distance. The first step consists of the element piercing the top cover plate, with aluminum flowing upwards forming a pool of metal on which the element head is intended to seat. This pool of material is essential for quality metrics of the joint. The scope of this research focuses on an issue that arises during the penetration step, namely chip formation. Chipping is described as formation of whisker-like flares and thin and irregularly shaped pieces of aluminum near the shaft of the element. The chipping is prominent in thicker cover plates at relatively low rotational speeds. High speed imaging has revealed element walking of the element to be the probable cause of chipping. The presence of chipping in FEW joints is described to be the cause of accelerated corrosion of the joint. Therefore, the goal of this research is to eliminate chipping without the addition of any filler material while maintaining joint strength. Localized heating of the cover plate in the region where the element is designed to pierce has been explored as a viable and successful way of eliminating chipping. A design of experiments was conducted to assess the effectiveness of thermal augmentation during penetration step. The cover plate used was 7075-T6 aluminum with 3.175 mm thickness. The plate was heated to temperatures of 95C - 425C using a furnace. The heating process was followed immediately by the penetration step of the FEW process to assess chip formation. Results from different temperatures were compared visually with a baseline test that was conducted at room temperature. Although visual inspection showed some decrease in whisker formation at temperatures less than 200C, chipping was still present. However, at higher temperatures, and especially for the maximum temperature of 425C, both whiskers and chipping were completely eliminated. The aluminum flowed in a perfectly donut shaped pool under the element head. The 425C test was repeated for assessing repeatability of the process and yielded similar results every time. A scale for measuring the chipping is to be devised, which will provide quantification of effectiveness of the process along with visual inspection. The scale will account for factors such as size and density of whiskers, length and width of thin aluminum chips, and the overall size of the pool of metal under the element head. Friction Element Welding is an extremely rapid process, with cycle times of 1 – 1.6 seconds. The heating process is intended to be a supplementary process and hence is required to maintain fast heating in order to be effective in a production environment. Therefore, future stages of this research will be developed keeping in mind the development of a rapid heating system. Alternatives such as laser heating and induction heating are to be explored as viable heating option. Localized heating is a key aspect of developing the heating system, since widespread heating will result in unnecessary process energy consumption and cause changes in properties of the surrounding aluminum.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Other (describe below)


101st Year of the American Welding Society: Changes in Welding & Outlook
Additive Manufacture of the First Concentric Reduction Sleeve Used in the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry
Additive Manufacturing Using Semi-Solids
Advances in Robotic Arc DED AM for Shipbuilding
An Efficient Part-Scale Model to Predict Distortion on Overhang Structure in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
An Overview of LME Cracking in Advanced High Strength Automotive Steels
Analysis and Control of Humping Defect in Laser Wire Direct Deposition Process
Analysis of Dynamic Evolution of Weld Pool for the Real-Time Monitoring of Penetration Using Deep Learning
Avoiding Tool Failure and Defects in Friction Stir Welding Using Machine Learning
Bondline Properties in High Frequency Welding of Steels
Building a Digital Twin for Welding Process Monitoring, Visualization and Control Based on Deep Learning
Characterization of the Fourth Generation of Nickel-Chromium Welding Products for Nuclear Service
Chipping Study of Friction Element Welding
Computational Modeling on Defect Formation during Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding
Copper Foil Welding for Battery Manufacturing
Correlating Laser Power and Microstructural Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
Creep Strength Variation in Simulated ICHAZs of Grade 91 Steel
Design of an Austenitic Steel Weldment System Using ICME
Development of Industry 4.0 Software for Arc-Welding Energy Monitoring and Traceability
Development of Interlayer Technology to Join Advanced Materials for the Transportation Industry
Development, Optimization, and Mechanical Testing of ER80S-G Girth Welds on Internally Clad API 5L Grade X65 Pipes
Dissimilar Joining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite to Magnesium Alloy by Friction Self-Piercing Riveting Process
Effect of Aluminum on Primary Carbides in Chromium Carbide Overlays
Effect of Chemical Composition of Welding Consumable on Slag Formation and Weld Corrosion Resistance
Effect of Heating Rate on Austenite Formation in a Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel
Effect of Phase Transformations on Mechanical Properties of Ti Free Grade 300 Maraging Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF)
Electron Beam Brazing of Stainless Steel using NIORO Filler Metal
Evaluation of Braze Joints for Hydrogen Purification Diffuser
Experimental Studies of Wire Feeding Electron Beam Welding-Brazing of Aluminum to Stainless Steel and Titanium
Failure Analysis: Evaluating a Low Strength Solder Joint
Fundamentals and Techniques for High-Speed Imaging of Welding
GMA Weldability Between AISI 316L Pipes Manufactured by Conventional and Additive Manufacturing Processes
High Deposition Gas Metal Arc Variants for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
High Efficient Modification of Arc Welding Processes via Modeling and Sensing Weld Pool Behaviors
High Penetration Buried Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding for Shipyard Steel Plate Fabrication
Hybrid Laser Welding on API 5L Pipeline Steels
Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel Intermetallic Precipitation Behavior during Cladding
Improper Weld Field Fabrication Caused Premature Failure
In-situ Measurement and Numerical Simulation for Linear Friction Welding of Complex Titanium Structures
In-situ Synchrotron Diffraction Measurement of Solidification Behavior during Laser Welding of Multi-Principal-Component Alloy
Induction Heating-Assisted Friction Stir Welding in Low Carbon Steel Plates
Influence of Composition on the Solidification and Mechanical Properties of HP-Modified Heat-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels
Influence of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Formation in Rapid Solidification of Ni2MnGa Alloy
Influence of Hydrogen on the Softened HAZ in Various Carbon Steel Welds
Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Techniques to Enable a Material-Informed Digital Twin Prototype for Marine Structures
Integrated Modeling of Multi-Process Automotive Lap Joining – Part 3: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Investigation of a Curly Toolpath in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Laves Phase Formation in Inconel 718 Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Investigation of Thermally Assisted Friction Element Welding
Joining Dissimilar Metals of DP590 Steel and AZ31B Magnesium Sheets by Ultrasonic Spot Welding
Low-cycle Fatigue Evaluations of Ni-Steel Dissimilar Joints for Coke Drum Welding Repairs
Machine Learning for Automatic Recognition of Microstructures
Material Characteristics of Wire Arc Additive Manufactured Inconel 718
Mechanical Properties Assessment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Built by GMA-DED
Mechanics of the Solid-State Bonding and Prediction of Thermomechanical Responses in Friction Stir Welding
Mechanistic Models and Machine Learning to Mitigate Common Defects in Metal Printing
Metallic Powder Core Tubular Wire Development for Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Reaction Synthesis Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Fusion Zones in a 10 wt% Ni Steel Weld Metal
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 410 Stainless Steel Using Different Shielding Gases in the Wire-Arc Additive Process
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intercritical-Treated Grade 91 Steel
Microstructures and Microhardness of LENS DED Deposits of Ti/TiC MMCs
Mitigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Galvannealed AHSS Welds Using High Entropy Alloy Filler
Modal Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding to Enable Multi-Spot Dissimilar Material Joining
Modeling and Comparing Human Welder’s Operation Between Stereo Camera and Virtual Reality
Modeling of In-Situ Tempering of a Creep Resistant Ferritic Martensitic Steel during Multi-Layer Additive Manufacturing
Modeling of Mash Seam Welding Using Improved Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Simulation
Modelling of Laser Cladding Using Gaussian Heat Source Profile and Verification with Experimental Results
Multi-Scale and Multi-Physics Modeling of Process-Microstructure-Property Relationship in Metal Additive Manufacturing
New Approaches in Friction Welding Advanced PM Nickel Base Superalloys
Novel Thermal Spray Alloy for Corrosive Applications
Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Electric Arc Columns
Optimization of Tool Path and Microstructure in Large Scale Metal Additive Manufacturing with Multi-Heat Sources
Phase Transformation Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of the Heat Affected Zone in Grade 92 Steel Welds
Procedure Qualification Schemes and Build Results for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Process Control Using Predictive Equations for Zero Programming Laser Cladding Facility
Process, Microstructure and Fracture Mode of Magnesium to Steel Dissimilar Metal Spot Joints
Pulsed-Arc Welding of Battery Tabs for Vehicle Electrification
PWHT of 347SS Weldments for Thermal Energy Storage Concentrating Solar Power Applications
Real-Time Prediction of Weld Penetration from Dynamic Weld Pool-Arc Images Deep Learning Based
Recent Developments in Metal Additive Manufacturing
Research and Development of a Novel TIG Welding Technology for Joining Thin Sheets Applying in Metal Forming Field
Residual Stress Measurement on High-Strength Steel Panels for Shipbuilding Application
Resistance Spot Welding Challenges, Root Causes, and Suggested Welding Practices When Welding 3rd Generation AHSS
Role of Retained Austenite in Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel
Simulation of Laser Brazing of Sheet Panels and Parametric Studies on Thermally-Induced Distortion Reduction
SMART Camera in the Welding Torch for Manual Welding Quality and Productivity
State-of-the-Art of Underwater Wet Welding Practice
Strain Ageing of Inconel 740H and 347H
Suitability of Using Thin Wire in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (GMA-DED)
Sulfur Implantation in Alloy 690 for the Study of Ductility-Dip Cracking
Surface Modification via Metal Deposition and Selective Alteration
Surface Treatment of 3-D Printing Parts
Temper Bead Welding
The Correlation of Hardness to Toughness and the Superior Low Temperature Impact Properties of Martensite in RPV Steels Applied to Temper Bead Qualification
The Role of Inclusions in Duplex Stainless Steels Produced Using Laser-Based Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
Unit Block-Based Process Planning Strategy of WAAM for Complex Shell-Shaped Component
Universal Representation of Arc Shape and Arc Column Characteristics for DC Electric Arcs Burning in Argon and Helium
Variation in Microstructure and Properties in the Heat Affected and Fusion Zones of Low-Density Fe-Mn-Al-C Steel Welds
Variations in Microstructure and Mechanical Properties with Solidification Mode in L-PBF 316L
Weld Metal Cooling Rate-Mechanical Property Response of Fe-10Ni Steel Gas Metal Arc Weld Deposits and Other Experimental Observations
Weldability and Microstructural Evolution of Fusion Welds in a γ’ Strengthened TRIP Steel
Welding and Joining Challenges in the Astrospace Industry
Welding of FeMnAl High-Manganese Lightweight Steel
Wetting and Low Temperature Bonding of Zirconia Metallized with Ti-Containing Active Solders

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