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Meeting 2020 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2020 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Metallic Powder Core Tubular Wire Development for Additive Manufacturing
Author(s) Marcia Suzanne Domack
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Marcia Suzanne Domack
Abstract Scope NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA, and the Center for Welding, Joining, and Coating Research (CWJCR) in the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) in Golden, CO, have collaborated for nearly fifteen years to develop metallic powder core tubular wire (PCTW) feedstock for additive manufacturing (AM) using electron beam deposition. The motivation for this development was to offset dealloying observed during deposition of titanium and aluminum alloy solid wire feedstock in the LaRC electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) system and to explore novel alloy compositions by tailoring the powder fill. EBF3 is a fusion-based AM process that is performed under vacuum and is consequently prone to vaporization loss of low vapor pressure alloying elements. Research spanning four graduate student research projects succeeded in developing the basic methodology to fabricate PCTW, the mass balance equations used to define the powder fill, microstructure control through particulate inoculation, and the feasibility of producing metal matrix composite materials. Metallic PCTW is comprised of a thin foil sheath wrapped around a powder blend. Fabrication of PCTW at CSM was accomplished using a tubular wire mill system to first bend a flat strip into a u-shaped cross section, deposit a powder fill, create a lap joint to seal the wire, and draw to final diameter. Powder management systems were developed to ensure uniform mixing of powder constituents and identify feed rates for optimum fill ratios. Processing parameters were successfully developed for titanium and aluminum alloy sheaths to account for material work hardening during drawing. Mass balance equations were developed to account for compositional contributions of the sheath and powder fill. PCTW composition can be adjusted through selection of the sheath or powder materials. PCTWs were successfully developed to offset Al loss in deposits of Ti-6-4 and Mg loss in Al 6061, resulting in deposits that were within the composition limits for each material. Ti-6-4 deposits were fabricated using PCTW comprised of commercially pure (CP) titanium sheath and a fill of pre-alloyed Ti-6-4 powder with additions of elemental Al and V powders. Additions of both elements were required to account for the CP Ti from the sheath, and Al was further enhanced to offset documented losses in EBF3 deposits. For Al 6061 deposits, composition was modulated through the choice of sheath material. The PCTW was made using an Al 5052 sheath to supplement Mg content and a fill composition of pre-alloyed 6061 powder with additions of Si and Cu. The slower solidification rate of the EBF3 process compared with laser powder bed fusion processes can lead to coarse-grained microstructures and mechanical property anisotropy. EBF3 deposits of Ti-6-4 exhibited large epitaxially grown β grains, which result in degraded mechanical properties in the deposition direction. Microstructure refinement was achieved through a combination of electron beam modulation and the use of a PCTW designed for Ti-6-4 deposits and modified by the addition of powder made from Fe and B. Resulting deposits exhibited reductions in β grain size, α phase colony intercept length and lath width, and an increased volume fraction of β phase. The mechanism of microstructure refinement was related to precipitation of boride particles. Hardness testing confirmed that mechanical property anisotropy was reduced and an overall increase in hardness was achieved. Metal matrix composite (MMC) materials offer strength and stiffness benefits over unreinforced materials. Two methods were investigated using PCTW technology for producing Al 6061 based MMC materials; the direct addition of SiC reinforcing particles and the in-situ generation of reinforcements through reaction synthesis of precursor powders. Al 6061 based MMCs reinforced with SiC exhibited particle clustering and formation of aluminum carbides during deposition. The application of a Ni coating to the SiC particles prior to incorporation into the powder fill eliminated aluminum carbide formation and aided particle distribution during deposition. Modulation of beam focus and power further reduced aluminum carbide formation and aided particle distribution. In reaction synthesis, precursor additions undergo an exothermic reaction during deposition to form new ceramic products, generally of finer scale than the initial precursor components. The product phases provide reinforcement in the MMC and act as nucleation sites during solidification, resulting in grain refinement, improved mechanical properties, and reduced susceptibility to solidification cracking. Higher tensile strength and stiffness were demonstrated in Al 6061 based MMCs with 2 vol% reinforcement. These combined research efforts demonstrate the potential of PCTW technology for customizing of alloy composition and achieving microstructure control. A manufacturing process for titanium- and aluminum-based PCTWs was developed based on iterative design, theoretical calculations, and empirical data. PCTW technology successfully mitigated Al loss from Ti-6-4 and Mg loss in Al 6061, resulted in grain refinement in Ti-6-4, and demonstrated fabrication of Al based MMCs.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Other (describe below)


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An Efficient Part-Scale Model to Predict Distortion on Overhang Structure in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
An Overview of LME Cracking in Advanced High Strength Automotive Steels
Analysis and Control of Humping Defect in Laser Wire Direct Deposition Process
Analysis of Dynamic Evolution of Weld Pool for the Real-Time Monitoring of Penetration Using Deep Learning
Avoiding Tool Failure and Defects in Friction Stir Welding Using Machine Learning
Bondline Properties in High Frequency Welding of Steels
Building a Digital Twin for Welding Process Monitoring, Visualization and Control Based on Deep Learning
Characterization of the Fourth Generation of Nickel-Chromium Welding Products for Nuclear Service
Chipping Study of Friction Element Welding
Computational Modeling on Defect Formation during Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding
Copper Foil Welding for Battery Manufacturing
Correlating Laser Power and Microstructural Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
Creep Strength Variation in Simulated ICHAZs of Grade 91 Steel
Design of an Austenitic Steel Weldment System Using ICME
Development of Industry 4.0 Software for Arc-Welding Energy Monitoring and Traceability
Development of Interlayer Technology to Join Advanced Materials for the Transportation Industry
Development, Optimization, and Mechanical Testing of ER80S-G Girth Welds on Internally Clad API 5L Grade X65 Pipes
Dissimilar Joining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite to Magnesium Alloy by Friction Self-Piercing Riveting Process
Effect of Aluminum on Primary Carbides in Chromium Carbide Overlays
Effect of Chemical Composition of Welding Consumable on Slag Formation and Weld Corrosion Resistance
Effect of Heating Rate on Austenite Formation in a Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel
Effect of Phase Transformations on Mechanical Properties of Ti Free Grade 300 Maraging Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF)
Electron Beam Brazing of Stainless Steel using NIORO Filler Metal
Evaluation of Braze Joints for Hydrogen Purification Diffuser
Experimental Studies of Wire Feeding Electron Beam Welding-Brazing of Aluminum to Stainless Steel and Titanium
Failure Analysis: Evaluating a Low Strength Solder Joint
Fundamentals and Techniques for High-Speed Imaging of Welding
GMA Weldability Between AISI 316L Pipes Manufactured by Conventional and Additive Manufacturing Processes
High Deposition Gas Metal Arc Variants for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
High Efficient Modification of Arc Welding Processes via Modeling and Sensing Weld Pool Behaviors
High Penetration Buried Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding for Shipyard Steel Plate Fabrication
Hybrid Laser Welding on API 5L Pipeline Steels
Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel Intermetallic Precipitation Behavior during Cladding
Improper Weld Field Fabrication Caused Premature Failure
In-situ Measurement and Numerical Simulation for Linear Friction Welding of Complex Titanium Structures
In-situ Synchrotron Diffraction Measurement of Solidification Behavior during Laser Welding of Multi-Principal-Component Alloy
Induction Heating-Assisted Friction Stir Welding in Low Carbon Steel Plates
Influence of Composition on the Solidification and Mechanical Properties of HP-Modified Heat-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels
Influence of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Formation in Rapid Solidification of Ni2MnGa Alloy
Influence of Hydrogen on the Softened HAZ in Various Carbon Steel Welds
Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Techniques to Enable a Material-Informed Digital Twin Prototype for Marine Structures
Integrated Modeling of Multi-Process Automotive Lap Joining – Part 3: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Investigation of a Curly Toolpath in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Laves Phase Formation in Inconel 718 Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Investigation of Thermally Assisted Friction Element Welding
Joining Dissimilar Metals of DP590 Steel and AZ31B Magnesium Sheets by Ultrasonic Spot Welding
Low-cycle Fatigue Evaluations of Ni-Steel Dissimilar Joints for Coke Drum Welding Repairs
Machine Learning for Automatic Recognition of Microstructures
Material Characteristics of Wire Arc Additive Manufactured Inconel 718
Mechanical Properties Assessment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Built by GMA-DED
Mechanics of the Solid-State Bonding and Prediction of Thermomechanical Responses in Friction Stir Welding
Mechanistic Models and Machine Learning to Mitigate Common Defects in Metal Printing
Metallic Powder Core Tubular Wire Development for Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Reaction Synthesis Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Fusion Zones in a 10 wt% Ni Steel Weld Metal
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 410 Stainless Steel Using Different Shielding Gases in the Wire-Arc Additive Process
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intercritical-Treated Grade 91 Steel
Microstructures and Microhardness of LENS DED Deposits of Ti/TiC MMCs
Mitigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Galvannealed AHSS Welds Using High Entropy Alloy Filler
Modal Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding to Enable Multi-Spot Dissimilar Material Joining
Modeling and Comparing Human Welder’s Operation Between Stereo Camera and Virtual Reality
Modeling of In-Situ Tempering of a Creep Resistant Ferritic Martensitic Steel during Multi-Layer Additive Manufacturing
Modeling of Mash Seam Welding Using Improved Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Simulation
Modelling of Laser Cladding Using Gaussian Heat Source Profile and Verification with Experimental Results
Multi-Scale and Multi-Physics Modeling of Process-Microstructure-Property Relationship in Metal Additive Manufacturing
New Approaches in Friction Welding Advanced PM Nickel Base Superalloys
Novel Thermal Spray Alloy for Corrosive Applications
Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Electric Arc Columns
Optimization of Tool Path and Microstructure in Large Scale Metal Additive Manufacturing with Multi-Heat Sources
Phase Transformation Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of the Heat Affected Zone in Grade 92 Steel Welds
Procedure Qualification Schemes and Build Results for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Process Control Using Predictive Equations for Zero Programming Laser Cladding Facility
Process, Microstructure and Fracture Mode of Magnesium to Steel Dissimilar Metal Spot Joints
Pulsed-Arc Welding of Battery Tabs for Vehicle Electrification
PWHT of 347SS Weldments for Thermal Energy Storage Concentrating Solar Power Applications
Real-Time Prediction of Weld Penetration from Dynamic Weld Pool-Arc Images Deep Learning Based
Recent Developments in Metal Additive Manufacturing
Research and Development of a Novel TIG Welding Technology for Joining Thin Sheets Applying in Metal Forming Field
Residual Stress Measurement on High-Strength Steel Panels for Shipbuilding Application
Resistance Spot Welding Challenges, Root Causes, and Suggested Welding Practices When Welding 3rd Generation AHSS
Role of Retained Austenite in Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel
Simulation of Laser Brazing of Sheet Panels and Parametric Studies on Thermally-Induced Distortion Reduction
SMART Camera in the Welding Torch for Manual Welding Quality and Productivity
State-of-the-Art of Underwater Wet Welding Practice
Strain Ageing of Inconel 740H and 347H
Suitability of Using Thin Wire in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (GMA-DED)
Sulfur Implantation in Alloy 690 for the Study of Ductility-Dip Cracking
Surface Modification via Metal Deposition and Selective Alteration
Surface Treatment of 3-D Printing Parts
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The Correlation of Hardness to Toughness and the Superior Low Temperature Impact Properties of Martensite in RPV Steels Applied to Temper Bead Qualification
The Role of Inclusions in Duplex Stainless Steels Produced Using Laser-Based Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
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Unit Block-Based Process Planning Strategy of WAAM for Complex Shell-Shaped Component
Universal Representation of Arc Shape and Arc Column Characteristics for DC Electric Arcs Burning in Argon and Helium
Variation in Microstructure and Properties in the Heat Affected and Fusion Zones of Low-Density Fe-Mn-Al-C Steel Welds
Variations in Microstructure and Mechanical Properties with Solidification Mode in L-PBF 316L
Weld Metal Cooling Rate-Mechanical Property Response of Fe-10Ni Steel Gas Metal Arc Weld Deposits and Other Experimental Observations
Weldability and Microstructural Evolution of Fusion Welds in a γ’ Strengthened TRIP Steel
Welding and Joining Challenges in the Astrospace Industry
Welding of FeMnAl High-Manganese Lightweight Steel
Wetting and Low Temperature Bonding of Zirconia Metallized with Ti-Containing Active Solders

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