ProgramMaster Logo
Conference Tools for 2020 AWS Professional Program
Register as a New User
Submit An Abstract
Propose A Symposium
Presenter/Author Tools
Organizer/Editor Tools
About this Abstract
Meeting 2020 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2020 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Reaction Synthesis Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Additive Manufacturing
Author(s) Ethan M. Sullivan, Jacob Nuechterlein, Jeremy Iten, Adam Polizzi, Marcia Domack, Stephen Liu
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Ethan M. Sullivan
Abstract Scope Wrought aluminium (Al) alloys, particularly those exhibiting high strength, are already seeing extensive use in aerospace and automotive applications given their high strength-to-weight ratio. Further improvements to certain properties, including specific modulus, stiffness, and dimensional stability during thermal cycling, can be achieved by the introduction of discontinuous reinforcement into the Al matrix to create a metal matrix composite (MMC). Traditionally, components made using Al MMCs have been manufactured via casting followed by plastic deformation processes and machining. For specific applications, however, these processes are limited by production efficiency and geometric complexity, which can render traditional manufacturing methods prohibitively costly. To overcome the limitations of conventional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing (AM) of these alloys has become widely utilized in an effort to meet the demands of the aerospace and automotive industries. Therefore, producing Al MMC parts by AM combines the improved material properties of the MMC with the direct cost savings and ability to make complex geometry components provided by AM. Another problem associated with 6xxx and 7xxx Al alloys is that they possess a propensity for solidification cracking given their large solidification temperature ranges, high coefficients of thermal expansion, and the presence of significant solidification shrinkage stresses. This propensity for solidification cracking tends to make them unsuitable for welding and AM processes. However, making these Al alloys into MMCs by the introduction of discontinuous reinforcement, like ceramic particulates, can minimize the solidification cracking problem while simultaneously improving mechanical properties. In this work, aluminum-based reactive additive manufacturing (RAM) powder blend feedstocks produced using the reaction synthesis concept are employed in laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF), and electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) AM processes to create nanoscale ceramic inoculants in situ. Blended powder was used as the feedstock for the L-PBF process, and powder core filled wire was the feedstock for the EBF3 process. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feedstock ceramic content on microstructure and mechanical properties of the two AM build processes. The RAM feedstocks were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Electron back-scatter diffraction was used to examine texturing and the extent of grain refinement among the various feedstock compositions and the different solidification processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for phase determination for each build condition. ASTM subsize tensile and Charpy impact specimens were machined from each build to measure the tensile strength and impact energy of materials produced by each process. MicroCT was used to quantify the vol.% of porosity and unreacted powder particles in each build. Finally, scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and selected area diffraction during transmission electron microscopy (TEM-SAD) were used to identify the precipitates formed from the reaction synthesis process. Significant grain refinement, mitigation of solidification cracking, and formation of an equiaxed grain structure were observed with the addition of just 2 vol.% ceramic. Higher angle grain boundaries were found to be more prevalent in builds containing ceramic reinforcement. Optimal toughness was found to occur at 2 vol.% ceramic. The strain hardening rate was found to increase by increasing the ceramic content up to 10 vol.%. L-PBF builds containing 10 vol.% ceramic reinforcement exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus of 368 2 MPa and 92.8 1.6 GPa, respectively. A number of large pores were observed with MicroCT for the EBF3 builds, caused by vaporization of Mg due to the EBF3 process being conducted in vacuum. Less unreacted powder particles were observed in the EBF3 builds, but this is suggested to be a result of powder core ejection during EBF3, which was exacerbated by the energetic nature of the powder core reactions. This work demonstrated the ability of the ceramic-forming reaction synthesis powder and wire feedstocks to transform the build microstructure from a typically columnar grain structure into a refined, equiaxed grain structure that was more resistant to solidification cracking. The refined, equiaxed grain structure was accompanied by an increase in high angle grain boundaries, which future work will examine for their impact on differences in heat treatment response. With regards to mechanical properties, the highest impact toughness of the available builds was achieved for 2 vol.% ceramic for both AM processes. Higher work hardening rates were observed for builds with higher ceramic content, suggesting the presence of fine, very hard ceramic particles. The Young's modulus of the MMCs was clearly seen to increase with increasing ceramic content. However, in the EBF3 builds, large pores caused variability in the elongation and ultimate tensile strength, and clear trends for these properties could not be defined. Further optimization of the EBF3 process to achieve better reaction and to minimize trapping of gas within the build will be required.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Other (describe below)


101st Year of the American Welding Society: Changes in Welding & Outlook
Additive Manufacture of the First Concentric Reduction Sleeve Used in the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry
Additive Manufacturing Using Semi-Solids
Advances in Robotic Arc DED AM for Shipbuilding
An Efficient Part-Scale Model to Predict Distortion on Overhang Structure in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
An Overview of LME Cracking in Advanced High Strength Automotive Steels
Analysis and Control of Humping Defect in Laser Wire Direct Deposition Process
Analysis of Dynamic Evolution of Weld Pool for the Real-Time Monitoring of Penetration Using Deep Learning
Avoiding Tool Failure and Defects in Friction Stir Welding Using Machine Learning
Bondline Properties in High Frequency Welding of Steels
Building a Digital Twin for Welding Process Monitoring, Visualization and Control Based on Deep Learning
Characterization of the Fourth Generation of Nickel-Chromium Welding Products for Nuclear Service
Chipping Study of Friction Element Welding
Computational Modeling on Defect Formation during Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding
Copper Foil Welding for Battery Manufacturing
Correlating Laser Power and Microstructural Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
Creep Strength Variation in Simulated ICHAZs of Grade 91 Steel
Design of an Austenitic Steel Weldment System Using ICME
Development of Industry 4.0 Software for Arc-Welding Energy Monitoring and Traceability
Development of Interlayer Technology to Join Advanced Materials for the Transportation Industry
Development, Optimization, and Mechanical Testing of ER80S-G Girth Welds on Internally Clad API 5L Grade X65 Pipes
Dissimilar Joining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite to Magnesium Alloy by Friction Self-Piercing Riveting Process
Effect of Aluminum on Primary Carbides in Chromium Carbide Overlays
Effect of Chemical Composition of Welding Consumable on Slag Formation and Weld Corrosion Resistance
Effect of Heating Rate on Austenite Formation in a Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel
Effect of Phase Transformations on Mechanical Properties of Ti Free Grade 300 Maraging Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF)
Electron Beam Brazing of Stainless Steel using NIORO Filler Metal
Evaluation of Braze Joints for Hydrogen Purification Diffuser
Experimental Studies of Wire Feeding Electron Beam Welding-Brazing of Aluminum to Stainless Steel and Titanium
Failure Analysis: Evaluating a Low Strength Solder Joint
Fundamentals and Techniques for High-Speed Imaging of Welding
GMA Weldability Between AISI 316L Pipes Manufactured by Conventional and Additive Manufacturing Processes
High Deposition Gas Metal Arc Variants for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
High Efficient Modification of Arc Welding Processes via Modeling and Sensing Weld Pool Behaviors
High Penetration Buried Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding for Shipyard Steel Plate Fabrication
Hybrid Laser Welding on API 5L Pipeline Steels
Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel Intermetallic Precipitation Behavior during Cladding
Improper Weld Field Fabrication Caused Premature Failure
In-situ Measurement and Numerical Simulation for Linear Friction Welding of Complex Titanium Structures
In-situ Synchrotron Diffraction Measurement of Solidification Behavior during Laser Welding of Multi-Principal-Component Alloy
Induction Heating-Assisted Friction Stir Welding in Low Carbon Steel Plates
Influence of Composition on the Solidification and Mechanical Properties of HP-Modified Heat-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels
Influence of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Formation in Rapid Solidification of Ni2MnGa Alloy
Influence of Hydrogen on the Softened HAZ in Various Carbon Steel Welds
Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Techniques to Enable a Material-Informed Digital Twin Prototype for Marine Structures
Integrated Modeling of Multi-Process Automotive Lap Joining – Part 3: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Investigation of a Curly Toolpath in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Laves Phase Formation in Inconel 718 Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Investigation of Thermally Assisted Friction Element Welding
Joining Dissimilar Metals of DP590 Steel and AZ31B Magnesium Sheets by Ultrasonic Spot Welding
Low-cycle Fatigue Evaluations of Ni-Steel Dissimilar Joints for Coke Drum Welding Repairs
Machine Learning for Automatic Recognition of Microstructures
Material Characteristics of Wire Arc Additive Manufactured Inconel 718
Mechanical Properties Assessment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Built by GMA-DED
Mechanics of the Solid-State Bonding and Prediction of Thermomechanical Responses in Friction Stir Welding
Mechanistic Models and Machine Learning to Mitigate Common Defects in Metal Printing
Metallic Powder Core Tubular Wire Development for Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Reaction Synthesis Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Fusion Zones in a 10 wt% Ni Steel Weld Metal
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 410 Stainless Steel Using Different Shielding Gases in the Wire-Arc Additive Process
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intercritical-Treated Grade 91 Steel
Microstructures and Microhardness of LENS DED Deposits of Ti/TiC MMCs
Mitigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Galvannealed AHSS Welds Using High Entropy Alloy Filler
Modal Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding to Enable Multi-Spot Dissimilar Material Joining
Modeling and Comparing Human Welder’s Operation Between Stereo Camera and Virtual Reality
Modeling of In-Situ Tempering of a Creep Resistant Ferritic Martensitic Steel during Multi-Layer Additive Manufacturing
Modeling of Mash Seam Welding Using Improved Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Simulation
Modelling of Laser Cladding Using Gaussian Heat Source Profile and Verification with Experimental Results
Multi-Scale and Multi-Physics Modeling of Process-Microstructure-Property Relationship in Metal Additive Manufacturing
New Approaches in Friction Welding Advanced PM Nickel Base Superalloys
Novel Thermal Spray Alloy for Corrosive Applications
Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Electric Arc Columns
Optimization of Tool Path and Microstructure in Large Scale Metal Additive Manufacturing with Multi-Heat Sources
Phase Transformation Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of the Heat Affected Zone in Grade 92 Steel Welds
Procedure Qualification Schemes and Build Results for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Process Control Using Predictive Equations for Zero Programming Laser Cladding Facility
Process, Microstructure and Fracture Mode of Magnesium to Steel Dissimilar Metal Spot Joints
Pulsed-Arc Welding of Battery Tabs for Vehicle Electrification
PWHT of 347SS Weldments for Thermal Energy Storage Concentrating Solar Power Applications
Real-Time Prediction of Weld Penetration from Dynamic Weld Pool-Arc Images Deep Learning Based
Recent Developments in Metal Additive Manufacturing
Research and Development of a Novel TIG Welding Technology for Joining Thin Sheets Applying in Metal Forming Field
Residual Stress Measurement on High-Strength Steel Panels for Shipbuilding Application
Resistance Spot Welding Challenges, Root Causes, and Suggested Welding Practices When Welding 3rd Generation AHSS
Role of Retained Austenite in Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel
Simulation of Laser Brazing of Sheet Panels and Parametric Studies on Thermally-Induced Distortion Reduction
SMART Camera in the Welding Torch for Manual Welding Quality and Productivity
State-of-the-Art of Underwater Wet Welding Practice
Strain Ageing of Inconel 740H and 347H
Suitability of Using Thin Wire in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (GMA-DED)
Sulfur Implantation in Alloy 690 for the Study of Ductility-Dip Cracking
Surface Modification via Metal Deposition and Selective Alteration
Surface Treatment of 3-D Printing Parts
Temper Bead Welding
The Correlation of Hardness to Toughness and the Superior Low Temperature Impact Properties of Martensite in RPV Steels Applied to Temper Bead Qualification
The Role of Inclusions in Duplex Stainless Steels Produced Using Laser-Based Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
Unit Block-Based Process Planning Strategy of WAAM for Complex Shell-Shaped Component
Universal Representation of Arc Shape and Arc Column Characteristics for DC Electric Arcs Burning in Argon and Helium
Variation in Microstructure and Properties in the Heat Affected and Fusion Zones of Low-Density Fe-Mn-Al-C Steel Welds
Variations in Microstructure and Mechanical Properties with Solidification Mode in L-PBF 316L
Weld Metal Cooling Rate-Mechanical Property Response of Fe-10Ni Steel Gas Metal Arc Weld Deposits and Other Experimental Observations
Weldability and Microstructural Evolution of Fusion Welds in a γ’ Strengthened TRIP Steel
Welding and Joining Challenges in the Astrospace Industry
Welding of FeMnAl High-Manganese Lightweight Steel
Wetting and Low Temperature Bonding of Zirconia Metallized with Ti-Containing Active Solders

Questions about ProgramMaster? Contact