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Meeting 2020 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2020 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title High Deposition Gas Metal Arc Variants for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Author(s) Michael Carney, Travis Peterson, Dennis Harwig
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Michael Carney
Abstract Scope Introduction: Robotic arc directed energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing (AM) provides a wide range of potential benefits for building structures, adding features to structures, and repairing structures. Prior investigation developed pulse gas metal arc (GMA-P) DED procedures for building single pass wall and multi-bead multi-pass (MBMP) block sections. These DED parameters were used to fabricate standard qualification builds (SQBs) and evaluate DED procedure qualification scheme requirements for new technical publication [1]. Prior GMA-P DED investigation evaluated SQBs with two bead sizes and two inter-pass temperatures using ER308L electrode where tensile properties met expectations in the x-, y- and z-directions. The deposition rates of the ER308L GMA-P DED procedures were 7.1 lbs/hr for large bead and 8.7 lbs/hr for small bead parameters. To improve DED AM economics and deposition rate for making larger shapes, multi-wire variants of GMA-P were reviewed in this investigation. Based on this review, the twin wire - gas metal arc - pulse (TW-GMA-P) process was selected for procedure development. The twin wire torch is more omni-directional compared to tandem torches making it more attractive for DED. In addition, the twin wire process only requires a special torch and wire feeder. Twin wire GMA-P shares a common power supply making it more affordable than tandem wire GMA-P systems that require two power supply setups. Experimental Approach: The TW-GMA-P DED AM process was setup to use two 0.040-inch diameter ER308L electrodes and argon-CO2 shielding gas. 304L stainless steel was used for the build platforms. Maximum inter-pass temperature was 350F for each bead. The contact tip to work distance was set at 0.625-inch and all tests were performed in the flat position with no torch or work angle. No angles were used to simplify parameter modeling in robotic computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software packages that solve build plans for making DED structures. Mini-wall and mini-block parameter build tests were used to develop the TW-GMA-P DED procedures. A systematic parameter development method was used to develop parameters at a constant bead size by varying total wire feed speed (WFS) to travel speed (TS) ratios from 30 to 45. A final set of WFS and TS combinations were tested at the WFS/TS ratios of 35 and 42 to determine fusion quality from insufficient fusion to excessive dilution/penetration and loss of fairness. Standard qualification builds (SQB) must pass both ultrasonic and radiographic inspections and have acceptable surface and edge fairness. Therefore, the main acceptance criteria used to guide parameter development was the ability to make straight and fair walls and blocks that are completely fused and defect-free. Tests that met fairness requirements were sectioned, etched, and examined for fusion quality and bead structure. Preferred parameters that met the above criteria and maximized deposition rate were selected for making MBMP block builds and testing properties. Preferred parameters were used to build the SQB is shown in Figure 1. The SQB is 28-in. long. The build contains both single pass wall and MBML block features to permit tensile specimens in x- and z-, and x-, y- and z-directions, respectively. All passes were made in the x-direction. The first pass of each layer is produced down the center of the build width. Additional passes in each layer in multi-pass layers were alternated about the center pass of the layer (bi-symmetric build). All passes in each layer are produced in the same direction. The direction of passes alternated direction in every new layer to level the start and stop areas. Figure 1. ER308L TW-GMA-P DED Wall and Block Property Build on Non-integrated 304L Build Platform Results and Discussion: The objective of this investigation was to develop high deposition TW-GMA-P DED parameters and benchmark the preferred parameters against single-wire GMA-P DED procedures. As noted, the deposition rates were 7.1 lbs/hr for large bead and 8.7 lbs/hr for small bead GMA-P procedures. The preferred parameters were a result of the pulse waveform melting rate, pool stability while depositing DED walls and blocks, surface fairness, and soundness. Pool stability at higher travel and wire feed speeds was also limited by arc plasma-jet phenomena. High travel speed tests that had deep finger penetration were more susceptible to plasma-jet induced porosity. Higher melting rate (wire volume melting from anode and resistive heating) processes produce lower heat inputs and require higher travel speeds to achieve the same level of fusion (base metal dilution) for a given bead deposit size. The TW-GMA-P process uses smaller electrodes that provide higher resistive heating and melting rate. From a plasma jet perspective, tandem and twin wire arcs that are the same polarity are attracted to each other and couple. A coupled arc results in lower arc pressure compared to single wire arcs at the same current and are very resistant to pool keyhole formation. In addition, a coupled arc improves melting rate since each arc provides additional electrode extension heating to the opposing electrode. The net affect was the TW-GMA-P arc and puddle were very stable at significantly higher travel speeds and wire feed speeds compared to the prior investigation. The deposition rate evaluated for making block builds varied from 12 lbs/hr to 30 lbs/hr. At the latter deposition rate, the deposit was stable on the first layer, but as build height increased the stability of the build deposits was lost. The preferred parameters for WFS/TS ratios of 35 and 42 were: • 700-ipm WFS combined at 20-ipm TS; 15 lbs/hr • 1050-ipm WFS combined at 25-ipm TS; 23 lbs/hr The same parameters were used for all beads at the 15 lbs/hr deposition rate. When the deposition rate was increased to 23 lbs/hr, edge bead and single bead procedures needed modified to lower rate settings to ensure pool stability and surface fairness. Conclusion: Preferred TW-GMA-P DED parameters provided two to three times the deposition rate of single wire GMA-P DED procedures for making MPML block builds. Stable builds were made at deposition rates up to 23 lbs/hr. The TW-GMA-P DED process offers significant benefits and should be considered for large-scale DED AM of structures.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Other (describe below)


101st Year of the American Welding Society: Changes in Welding & Outlook
Additive Manufacture of the First Concentric Reduction Sleeve Used in the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry
Additive Manufacturing Using Semi-Solids
Advances in Robotic Arc DED AM for Shipbuilding
An Efficient Part-Scale Model to Predict Distortion on Overhang Structure in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
An Overview of LME Cracking in Advanced High Strength Automotive Steels
Analysis and Control of Humping Defect in Laser Wire Direct Deposition Process
Analysis of Dynamic Evolution of Weld Pool for the Real-Time Monitoring of Penetration Using Deep Learning
Avoiding Tool Failure and Defects in Friction Stir Welding Using Machine Learning
Bondline Properties in High Frequency Welding of Steels
Building a Digital Twin for Welding Process Monitoring, Visualization and Control Based on Deep Learning
Characterization of the Fourth Generation of Nickel-Chromium Welding Products for Nuclear Service
Chipping Study of Friction Element Welding
Computational Modeling on Defect Formation during Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding
Copper Foil Welding for Battery Manufacturing
Correlating Laser Power and Microstructural Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
Creep Strength Variation in Simulated ICHAZs of Grade 91 Steel
Design of an Austenitic Steel Weldment System Using ICME
Development of Industry 4.0 Software for Arc-Welding Energy Monitoring and Traceability
Development of Interlayer Technology to Join Advanced Materials for the Transportation Industry
Development, Optimization, and Mechanical Testing of ER80S-G Girth Welds on Internally Clad API 5L Grade X65 Pipes
Dissimilar Joining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite to Magnesium Alloy by Friction Self-Piercing Riveting Process
Effect of Aluminum on Primary Carbides in Chromium Carbide Overlays
Effect of Chemical Composition of Welding Consumable on Slag Formation and Weld Corrosion Resistance
Effect of Heating Rate on Austenite Formation in a Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel
Effect of Phase Transformations on Mechanical Properties of Ti Free Grade 300 Maraging Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF)
Electron Beam Brazing of Stainless Steel using NIORO Filler Metal
Evaluation of Braze Joints for Hydrogen Purification Diffuser
Experimental Studies of Wire Feeding Electron Beam Welding-Brazing of Aluminum to Stainless Steel and Titanium
Failure Analysis: Evaluating a Low Strength Solder Joint
Fundamentals and Techniques for High-Speed Imaging of Welding
GMA Weldability Between AISI 316L Pipes Manufactured by Conventional and Additive Manufacturing Processes
High Deposition Gas Metal Arc Variants for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
High Efficient Modification of Arc Welding Processes via Modeling and Sensing Weld Pool Behaviors
High Penetration Buried Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding for Shipyard Steel Plate Fabrication
Hybrid Laser Welding on API 5L Pipeline Steels
Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel Intermetallic Precipitation Behavior during Cladding
Improper Weld Field Fabrication Caused Premature Failure
In-situ Measurement and Numerical Simulation for Linear Friction Welding of Complex Titanium Structures
In-situ Synchrotron Diffraction Measurement of Solidification Behavior during Laser Welding of Multi-Principal-Component Alloy
Induction Heating-Assisted Friction Stir Welding in Low Carbon Steel Plates
Influence of Composition on the Solidification and Mechanical Properties of HP-Modified Heat-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels
Influence of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Formation in Rapid Solidification of Ni2MnGa Alloy
Influence of Hydrogen on the Softened HAZ in Various Carbon Steel Welds
Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Techniques to Enable a Material-Informed Digital Twin Prototype for Marine Structures
Integrated Modeling of Multi-Process Automotive Lap Joining – Part 3: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Investigation of a Curly Toolpath in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Laves Phase Formation in Inconel 718 Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Investigation of Thermally Assisted Friction Element Welding
Joining Dissimilar Metals of DP590 Steel and AZ31B Magnesium Sheets by Ultrasonic Spot Welding
Low-cycle Fatigue Evaluations of Ni-Steel Dissimilar Joints for Coke Drum Welding Repairs
Machine Learning for Automatic Recognition of Microstructures
Material Characteristics of Wire Arc Additive Manufactured Inconel 718
Mechanical Properties Assessment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Built by GMA-DED
Mechanics of the Solid-State Bonding and Prediction of Thermomechanical Responses in Friction Stir Welding
Mechanistic Models and Machine Learning to Mitigate Common Defects in Metal Printing
Metallic Powder Core Tubular Wire Development for Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Reaction Synthesis Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Fusion Zones in a 10 wt% Ni Steel Weld Metal
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 410 Stainless Steel Using Different Shielding Gases in the Wire-Arc Additive Process
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intercritical-Treated Grade 91 Steel
Microstructures and Microhardness of LENS DED Deposits of Ti/TiC MMCs
Mitigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Galvannealed AHSS Welds Using High Entropy Alloy Filler
Modal Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding to Enable Multi-Spot Dissimilar Material Joining
Modeling and Comparing Human Welder’s Operation Between Stereo Camera and Virtual Reality
Modeling of In-Situ Tempering of a Creep Resistant Ferritic Martensitic Steel during Multi-Layer Additive Manufacturing
Modeling of Mash Seam Welding Using Improved Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Simulation
Modelling of Laser Cladding Using Gaussian Heat Source Profile and Verification with Experimental Results
Multi-Scale and Multi-Physics Modeling of Process-Microstructure-Property Relationship in Metal Additive Manufacturing
New Approaches in Friction Welding Advanced PM Nickel Base Superalloys
Novel Thermal Spray Alloy for Corrosive Applications
Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Electric Arc Columns
Optimization of Tool Path and Microstructure in Large Scale Metal Additive Manufacturing with Multi-Heat Sources
Phase Transformation Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of the Heat Affected Zone in Grade 92 Steel Welds
Procedure Qualification Schemes and Build Results for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Process Control Using Predictive Equations for Zero Programming Laser Cladding Facility
Process, Microstructure and Fracture Mode of Magnesium to Steel Dissimilar Metal Spot Joints
Pulsed-Arc Welding of Battery Tabs for Vehicle Electrification
PWHT of 347SS Weldments for Thermal Energy Storage Concentrating Solar Power Applications
Real-Time Prediction of Weld Penetration from Dynamic Weld Pool-Arc Images Deep Learning Based
Recent Developments in Metal Additive Manufacturing
Research and Development of a Novel TIG Welding Technology for Joining Thin Sheets Applying in Metal Forming Field
Residual Stress Measurement on High-Strength Steel Panels for Shipbuilding Application
Resistance Spot Welding Challenges, Root Causes, and Suggested Welding Practices When Welding 3rd Generation AHSS
Role of Retained Austenite in Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel
Simulation of Laser Brazing of Sheet Panels and Parametric Studies on Thermally-Induced Distortion Reduction
SMART Camera in the Welding Torch for Manual Welding Quality and Productivity
State-of-the-Art of Underwater Wet Welding Practice
Strain Ageing of Inconel 740H and 347H
Suitability of Using Thin Wire in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (GMA-DED)
Sulfur Implantation in Alloy 690 for the Study of Ductility-Dip Cracking
Surface Modification via Metal Deposition and Selective Alteration
Surface Treatment of 3-D Printing Parts
Temper Bead Welding
The Correlation of Hardness to Toughness and the Superior Low Temperature Impact Properties of Martensite in RPV Steels Applied to Temper Bead Qualification
The Role of Inclusions in Duplex Stainless Steels Produced Using Laser-Based Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
Unit Block-Based Process Planning Strategy of WAAM for Complex Shell-Shaped Component
Universal Representation of Arc Shape and Arc Column Characteristics for DC Electric Arcs Burning in Argon and Helium
Variation in Microstructure and Properties in the Heat Affected and Fusion Zones of Low-Density Fe-Mn-Al-C Steel Welds
Variations in Microstructure and Mechanical Properties with Solidification Mode in L-PBF 316L
Weld Metal Cooling Rate-Mechanical Property Response of Fe-10Ni Steel Gas Metal Arc Weld Deposits and Other Experimental Observations
Weldability and Microstructural Evolution of Fusion Welds in a γ’ Strengthened TRIP Steel
Welding and Joining Challenges in the Astrospace Industry
Welding of FeMnAl High-Manganese Lightweight Steel
Wetting and Low Temperature Bonding of Zirconia Metallized with Ti-Containing Active Solders

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