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Meeting 2020 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2020 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Procedure Qualification Schemes and Build Results for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Author(s) Dennis D. Harwig, William Mohr, Mike Carney, Susan Hovanec, Justin Rettaliata, Ryan Hayleck, Evan Handler, Jeff Farren
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Dennis D. Harwig
Abstract Scope Introduction: Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology is rapidly maturing, but shipbuilding implementation has been slow due to lack of fabrication standards. The standards’ development process is slow for many reasons including large number of new AM process types and lack of proven qualification and certification schemes. Directed energy deposition (DED) processes, which includes variants of arc, laser and electron beam welding processes, have the least risk since they leverage mature welding technology. Wire-based DED processes should leverage welding standards to ensure integrity of AM structures, and industry experience where welding processes have been used for decades to add features to structure and / or shape weld structures. Here, these applications were qualified as structural buttering. Gaps for new DED AM standards include understanding process-feature-property relationships such as anisotropic property changes over large build orientations, and requirements for digital manufacturing. AM components are “digitally” manufactured from computer-aided design (CAD) files using computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) solvers. To solve the qualification gap, this project developed procedure qualification scheme for DED processes. These requirements will be incorporated into a new Technical Publication - NAVSEA Process Requirements for Metal Directed Energy Deposition. This technical publication will include the framework for qualifying DED procedures, including procedure qualification requirements, part verification qualification requirements, and manufacturing verification requirements to ensure component (part) build quality. Experimental Approach: This project developed standard qualification builds (SQBs), nondestructive evaluation (NDE) plans, property test matrices, and procedure specification & qualification record forms for the most common DED applications that include: • Single-sided integrated build platform (SS-IBP), • Single sided non-integrated build platform (SS-NIBP), • Double-sided integrated build platform (DS-IBP), and • Double-sided non-integrated build platform (DS-NIBP). The SQBs provided sufficient build material for testing specimens in the x-, y-, and z-directions. Each build contained both single pass wall and multi-bead multi-layer (MBML) block features to provide a build feature window. An array of tensile specimens were designed to characterize properties in each build direction and elevation. Bend tests were also included to further demonstrate soundness and ductility. For single-sided SQBs, the build platforms were sized to minimize distortion. For integrated build platform SQBs, additional property test specimens were included to characterize build platform interface and heat affected zone (HAZ) properties. To ensure soundness, builds were machined prior to radiographic and ultrasonic inspection to MIL-STDs. Several SQBs were made using the Pulse Gas Metal Arc Pulse (P-GMA) DED process to validate the qualification schemes and characterize DED build quality. SGBs were made for the following applications: • Stainless steel ER308L GMA-P DED on 304L SS-NIBP, • Nickel aluminum bronze (NAB) GMA-P DED on NAB SS-IBP, and • High strength steel (HSS) ER100S-1 GMA-P DED on HY80 DS-IBP, Results and Discussion: The ER308L P-GMA DED builds evaluated effects of deposit size (heat input) and preheat / inter-pass temperature ranges. The process was setup to use 0.045 diameter ER308L electrodes and argon-CO2 shielding gas. A systematic parameter development method was used to develop parameters at a constant bead size by fixing the wire feed speed (WFS) to travel speed (TS) ratios of 15 for small beads and 30 for large beads. Preferred parameters were selected and used to make two SQBS at each bead size (WFS/TS ratio). For each bead size, a SQB was built at both 0 to 350F and 500 to 750F interpass temperatures. The GMAW-P process produced sound SQBs that met ultrasonic and radiographic inspection criteria. Bend tests further demonstrated soundness of both wall and block deposits in different planes. Tensile properties of the ER308L standard qualification build exceeded all property requirements for the ER308L filler material per AWS A5.9 in x- and y-directions. ER308L builds exceeded property requirements for 304L base materials for yield and ultimate strength per ASME SA 240. Elongations were slightly lower than base metal requirement of 40% in y- and z-directions. Yield strength decreased in ER308L builds with increasing bead size and preheat / interpass temperature. The greatest strengths were in the small bead and low preheat / interpass build condition. The NAB SS-IPB and HSS DS-IBP builds are in-progress and will be reported at the presentation. Conclusion: Procedure qualification schemes were determined to include a standard qualification build, a specimen test matrix, NDE test plans, and AMPS and AM-PQR forms. Schemes were developed for both single-sided and double-sided builds with or without an integrated build platform. A matrix of DED AM procedure qualification schemes offer reduced risk for DED implementation. References: 1) D.D Harwig,, W. Mohr,, S. Hovanec, J. Rettaliata, R. Hayleck., E Handler, and J.Farren, “Tech Pub Qualification Scheme Development for Arc Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing”, In Proceedings of the Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium (GVSETS), NDIA, Novi, MI, Aug. 13-15, 2019.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Other (describe below)


101st Year of the American Welding Society: Changes in Welding & Outlook
Additive Manufacture of the First Concentric Reduction Sleeve Used in the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry
Additive Manufacturing Using Semi-Solids
Advances in Robotic Arc DED AM for Shipbuilding
An Efficient Part-Scale Model to Predict Distortion on Overhang Structure in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
An Overview of LME Cracking in Advanced High Strength Automotive Steels
Analysis and Control of Humping Defect in Laser Wire Direct Deposition Process
Analysis of Dynamic Evolution of Weld Pool for the Real-Time Monitoring of Penetration Using Deep Learning
Avoiding Tool Failure and Defects in Friction Stir Welding Using Machine Learning
Bondline Properties in High Frequency Welding of Steels
Building a Digital Twin for Welding Process Monitoring, Visualization and Control Based on Deep Learning
Characterization of the Fourth Generation of Nickel-Chromium Welding Products for Nuclear Service
Chipping Study of Friction Element Welding
Computational Modeling on Defect Formation during Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding
Copper Foil Welding for Battery Manufacturing
Correlating Laser Power and Microstructural Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
Creep Strength Variation in Simulated ICHAZs of Grade 91 Steel
Design of an Austenitic Steel Weldment System Using ICME
Development of Industry 4.0 Software for Arc-Welding Energy Monitoring and Traceability
Development of Interlayer Technology to Join Advanced Materials for the Transportation Industry
Development, Optimization, and Mechanical Testing of ER80S-G Girth Welds on Internally Clad API 5L Grade X65 Pipes
Dissimilar Joining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite to Magnesium Alloy by Friction Self-Piercing Riveting Process
Effect of Aluminum on Primary Carbides in Chromium Carbide Overlays
Effect of Chemical Composition of Welding Consumable on Slag Formation and Weld Corrosion Resistance
Effect of Heating Rate on Austenite Formation in a Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel
Effect of Phase Transformations on Mechanical Properties of Ti Free Grade 300 Maraging Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF)
Electron Beam Brazing of Stainless Steel using NIORO Filler Metal
Evaluation of Braze Joints for Hydrogen Purification Diffuser
Experimental Studies of Wire Feeding Electron Beam Welding-Brazing of Aluminum to Stainless Steel and Titanium
Failure Analysis: Evaluating a Low Strength Solder Joint
Fundamentals and Techniques for High-Speed Imaging of Welding
GMA Weldability Between AISI 316L Pipes Manufactured by Conventional and Additive Manufacturing Processes
High Deposition Gas Metal Arc Variants for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
High Efficient Modification of Arc Welding Processes via Modeling and Sensing Weld Pool Behaviors
High Penetration Buried Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding for Shipyard Steel Plate Fabrication
Hybrid Laser Welding on API 5L Pipeline Steels
Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel Intermetallic Precipitation Behavior during Cladding
Improper Weld Field Fabrication Caused Premature Failure
In-situ Measurement and Numerical Simulation for Linear Friction Welding of Complex Titanium Structures
In-situ Synchrotron Diffraction Measurement of Solidification Behavior during Laser Welding of Multi-Principal-Component Alloy
Induction Heating-Assisted Friction Stir Welding in Low Carbon Steel Plates
Influence of Composition on the Solidification and Mechanical Properties of HP-Modified Heat-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels
Influence of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Formation in Rapid Solidification of Ni2MnGa Alloy
Influence of Hydrogen on the Softened HAZ in Various Carbon Steel Welds
Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Techniques to Enable a Material-Informed Digital Twin Prototype for Marine Structures
Integrated Modeling of Multi-Process Automotive Lap Joining – Part 3: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Investigation of a Curly Toolpath in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Laves Phase Formation in Inconel 718 Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Investigation of Thermally Assisted Friction Element Welding
Joining Dissimilar Metals of DP590 Steel and AZ31B Magnesium Sheets by Ultrasonic Spot Welding
Low-cycle Fatigue Evaluations of Ni-Steel Dissimilar Joints for Coke Drum Welding Repairs
Machine Learning for Automatic Recognition of Microstructures
Material Characteristics of Wire Arc Additive Manufactured Inconel 718
Mechanical Properties Assessment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Built by GMA-DED
Mechanics of the Solid-State Bonding and Prediction of Thermomechanical Responses in Friction Stir Welding
Mechanistic Models and Machine Learning to Mitigate Common Defects in Metal Printing
Metallic Powder Core Tubular Wire Development for Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Reaction Synthesis Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Additive Manufacturing
Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Fusion Zones in a 10 wt% Ni Steel Weld Metal
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 410 Stainless Steel Using Different Shielding Gases in the Wire-Arc Additive Process
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intercritical-Treated Grade 91 Steel
Microstructures and Microhardness of LENS DED Deposits of Ti/TiC MMCs
Mitigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Galvannealed AHSS Welds Using High Entropy Alloy Filler
Modal Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding to Enable Multi-Spot Dissimilar Material Joining
Modeling and Comparing Human Welder’s Operation Between Stereo Camera and Virtual Reality
Modeling of In-Situ Tempering of a Creep Resistant Ferritic Martensitic Steel during Multi-Layer Additive Manufacturing
Modeling of Mash Seam Welding Using Improved Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Simulation
Modelling of Laser Cladding Using Gaussian Heat Source Profile and Verification with Experimental Results
Multi-Scale and Multi-Physics Modeling of Process-Microstructure-Property Relationship in Metal Additive Manufacturing
New Approaches in Friction Welding Advanced PM Nickel Base Superalloys
Novel Thermal Spray Alloy for Corrosive Applications
Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Electric Arc Columns
Optimization of Tool Path and Microstructure in Large Scale Metal Additive Manufacturing with Multi-Heat Sources
Phase Transformation Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of the Heat Affected Zone in Grade 92 Steel Welds
Procedure Qualification Schemes and Build Results for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Process Control Using Predictive Equations for Zero Programming Laser Cladding Facility
Process, Microstructure and Fracture Mode of Magnesium to Steel Dissimilar Metal Spot Joints
Pulsed-Arc Welding of Battery Tabs for Vehicle Electrification
PWHT of 347SS Weldments for Thermal Energy Storage Concentrating Solar Power Applications
Real-Time Prediction of Weld Penetration from Dynamic Weld Pool-Arc Images Deep Learning Based
Recent Developments in Metal Additive Manufacturing
Research and Development of a Novel TIG Welding Technology for Joining Thin Sheets Applying in Metal Forming Field
Residual Stress Measurement on High-Strength Steel Panels for Shipbuilding Application
Resistance Spot Welding Challenges, Root Causes, and Suggested Welding Practices When Welding 3rd Generation AHSS
Role of Retained Austenite in Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel
Simulation of Laser Brazing of Sheet Panels and Parametric Studies on Thermally-Induced Distortion Reduction
SMART Camera in the Welding Torch for Manual Welding Quality and Productivity
State-of-the-Art of Underwater Wet Welding Practice
Strain Ageing of Inconel 740H and 347H
Suitability of Using Thin Wire in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (GMA-DED)
Sulfur Implantation in Alloy 690 for the Study of Ductility-Dip Cracking
Surface Modification via Metal Deposition and Selective Alteration
Surface Treatment of 3-D Printing Parts
Temper Bead Welding
The Correlation of Hardness to Toughness and the Superior Low Temperature Impact Properties of Martensite in RPV Steels Applied to Temper Bead Qualification
The Role of Inclusions in Duplex Stainless Steels Produced Using Laser-Based Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
Unit Block-Based Process Planning Strategy of WAAM for Complex Shell-Shaped Component
Universal Representation of Arc Shape and Arc Column Characteristics for DC Electric Arcs Burning in Argon and Helium
Variation in Microstructure and Properties in the Heat Affected and Fusion Zones of Low-Density Fe-Mn-Al-C Steel Welds
Variations in Microstructure and Mechanical Properties with Solidification Mode in L-PBF 316L
Weld Metal Cooling Rate-Mechanical Property Response of Fe-10Ni Steel Gas Metal Arc Weld Deposits and Other Experimental Observations
Weldability and Microstructural Evolution of Fusion Welds in a γ’ Strengthened TRIP Steel
Welding and Joining Challenges in the Astrospace Industry
Welding of FeMnAl High-Manganese Lightweight Steel
Wetting and Low Temperature Bonding of Zirconia Metallized with Ti-Containing Active Solders

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