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Meeting 2020 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2020 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Microstructures and Microhardness of LENS DED Deposits of Ti/TiC MMCs
Author(s) M. Radhakrishnan, Z. Guler, M. Hassan, B. Long, O. Anderoglu, T.J. Lienert
On-Site Speaker (Planned) T.J. Lienert
Abstract Scope Introduction: Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles are promising materials for many industrial applications owing to their favorable combination of mechanical and physical properties. Titanium alloys are attractive for several industries because of their low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance. Based on their useful set of properties, Ti alloys can be exploited as the matrix for MMCs containing various ceramic reinforcements. Addition of these ceramic materials serve to improve wear resistance and increase the elastic modulus of the resulting MMCs. Directed Energy Deposition (DED) additive manufacturing (AM) techniques offer a versatile option to fabricate fully dense and intricate parts of MMCs. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is laser assisted DED process that provides a competitive fabrication route to overcome some of the practical challenges in processing of MMCs by conventional routes. Procedures: In this study, an investigation of deposition of in-situ titanium/titanium carbide (Ti/TiC) MMCs on Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6-4) substrate was carried out. Commercially pure (CP) titanium and TiC powders were mixed in three volume fractions 20%, 40% and 60% TiC. Argon shielding gas was used to create an inert atmosphere and to protect the melt pool from contamination in the glove-box. After deposition, samples were sectioned, polished and etched using standard metallographic methods and examined using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Microhardness traverses were also conducted from the substrate into the deposits. Results: XRD patterns showed strong diffraction peaks corresponding to HCP-Ti (α-Ti) and an fcc phase in the deposit that matched closely with the TiC0.55 compound. Titanium carbide (TiC) is the only ordered compound in the Ti-C system and has a NaCl (B1) structure (face centered cubic) with carbon occupying the octahedral sites. According to the Ti-C phase diagram, a range of non-stoichiometric TiCx compounds is possible between 32 and 50 at.% carbon, with the corresponding fraction of vacancies occupying the carbon sites. In addition, more peaks were seen on the shoulders on the TiC0.55 peaks, especially in the 60% TiC deposit. These peaks were found to match with the stoichiometric TiC compound. The existence of a heat affected zone (HAZ) in the substrate extending up to ~300 μm from the deposit and characterized by an α’ martensite structure resulting from rapid cooling from higher temperatures was evident. The width of HAZ in the substrate was dependent on the laser energy and other process parameters. SEM images of the deposits showed remnants of the TiC particles (embedded in the α-Ti solidified matrix) from the initial powder mixture that did not dissolve entirely during the deposition process. The fraction of remnant TiC increased with increasing volume fraction in the powder feed mixture. No defects were observed in the 20% and 40% TiC deposit. However, cracks propagated across the substrate/deposit interface for the 60% TiC deposits. The area fraction of undissolved TiC particles in the deposit made with 60% TiC was about 4X and 10X higher than in the 40% and 20% TiC cases, respectively. Note that TiC dissolved into the melt on heating formed fine Ti-carbides (TiC0.55) during subsequent solidification. The micro-hardness traverse showed that the mean hardness of substrate, away from the HAZ, was about 320 5 HVN. The hardness values gradually increased in the HAZ due to the α’ martensite in that region. Within the deposit, the hardness increases sharply, particularly in the case of 40% and 60% TiC in the powder mixtures. Conclusions: The LENS technique has been successfully employed to deposit adherent Ti/TiC composites on Ti-6-4 substrates. The deposits contain undissolved TiC particles and a uniform dispersion of fine dendritic Ti-carbides (TiC0.55) embedded in α-Ti matrix. The fraction of undissolved TiC particles sharply increased in the deposit with 60% TiC, which evidently increased the build-up of residual stresses and therefore the propensity for crack propagation in the deposit near the interface. Cracking in the 60% TiC deposit can likely be limited by grading the fraction of TiC starting at 20% and increasing to 60% over the first several layers. The micro-hardness values increased with increasing TiC volume percent in the powder mixture. An optimal combination of mechanical properties and constituent volume fraction can be achieved with the LENS process to fabricate defect-free deposits.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Other (describe below)


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