Three-dimensional magnetic systems promise significant opportunities for both fundamental physics, and applications [1,2]. However, their experimental realisation requires new characterisation techniques.
We have developed X-ray magnetic nanotomography , providing access to the three-dimensional magnetic configuration at the nanoscale. In a first demonstration, we determined the three-dimensional magnetic structure within the bulk of a magnetic micropillar that contains vortices and antivortices, as well as Bloch point singularities .
In addition, the dynamic response of three-dimensional magnetic configurations is key. We have developed pump-probe X-ray magnetic laminography, providing access to the magnetisation dynamics of a three-dimensional magnetic system . These new experimental capabilities unlock the elucidation of complex three-dimensional magnetic structures, and their dynamic behaviour.
 Fernández-Pacheco et al., Nature Comm. 8, 15756 (2017)
 Donnelly and Scagnoli, J. Phys. D (2019).
 Donnelly et al., Nature 547, 328 (2017).
 Donnelly et al., Nature Nanotechnology 15, 356 (2020).