Laser-based 3d printing methods such as two photon polymerization, laser micromachining, and laser direct writing have been used to create surfaces with small-scale features for many types of medical applications. Several types of medical devices, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering and microfluidic devices, have been processed using two photon polymerization. For example, we used two photon polymerization to manufacture small-scale lancet-shaped biomicrofluidic devices known as microneedles; these devices have potential use for transdermal delivery of pharmacologic agents or transdermal sampling of body fluids. Methods to optimize the processing parameters and postprocessing procedures for medical applications will be described. For example, the selection of biologically-appropriate photoinitiators for use in medical applications will be discussed. The biological and functional evaluation of two photon polymerization-created devices will be considered. Appropriate steps in the development of two photon polymerization as a commercially scalable manufacturing method will be described.