Old iron in ancient China sprouted during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, and had been widely used for weapon, agriculture and handicraft since Qin dynasty (BC 221 to BC 207) and Han dynasty (BC 206 to AD 220). After more than thousand years, it reached crest with production of hundreds of thousands tons due to the requirements and ironmaking innovations at Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644) and Qing dynasty (AD 1645-1912). At the end of 19th, the steel rails had been introduced into China as a typical symbol of new steel. It marked the beginning of new steel and the decline of old iron in China. Through a century of evolution, today, almost all kinds of steels can be produced in China, including those for construction, automobile, and machine, with annual output of crude steel over 1 billion tons.