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Meeting 2023 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Metallic Materials
Sponsorship TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division
TMS: Additive Manufacturing Committee
Organizer(s) Antonio J. Ramirez, Ohio State University
Jeffrey W. Sowards, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
Omar R. Mireles, NASA
Eric A. Lass, University of Tennessee-Knoxville
Faramarz Zarandi, Raytheon Technologies
Matthew G. Osborne, Global Advanced Metals
Joao Pedro Oliveira, FCT-UNL
Scope As the metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology evolves and is showing itself as a technically and economically viable option for actual component production, the technology boundaries are being expanded towards more challenging materials, like refractory metallic materials, both alloys, and pure metals. As manufacturing involving refractory alloys has been a persistent challenge, the use of additive manufacturing for the production of complex parts presents itself as a potentially economically viable alternative, and for some key applications, AM seems to be one of the few options available. As a consequence, the exploration and development of metal additive manufacturing of alloys based on W, Mo, and Nb, among others, has attracted many researchers and organizations and this symposium would allow them to share their work, achievements, and challenges while enabling the researchers and engineers on private and government organizations involved on this technology to clearly understand the state of the art, the current limitations and the path forward to address such.

The growing interest and research activity on AM for refractory alloys has been driven in part by the growing interest in high-performance turbine engines, hypersonic technology for many defense and commercial applications, in addition to space power generation, and the need to implement nuclear propulsion for long-range space exploration. However, many other applications involve these materials, like the production of superconductive resonance cavities for particle accelerators and even quantum computing.
Refractory metals present unique inherent challenges like elevated reactivity, low ductility, and of course high melting temperatures. As a result, the printing of these materials has shown to be quite challenging. For example, W is known for having an elevated ductile-to-brittle transition temperature what makes powder-bed fusion printing of this material a cracking nightmare for the AM practitioners. Developments have been proposed using preheating to elevated temperatures to minimize cracking while printing of refractory alloys, which further enhances oxidation. Other approaches like alloy re-designing and smart thermal engineering during printing could be the solution and several researchers are working on it. Some of the cracking phenomena associated with printing are still unclear and therefore robust solutions have been elusive. Finally, the final obtained microstructures from AM, are unique in several aspects and their influence on performance has also been a matter of study. Therefore, this symposium will bring together the additive manufacturing community that has engaged in the fundamental and applied aspects associated with refractory metals printing. A large and diverse participation is expected from industry, government agencies, national laboratories, and university researchers. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

• The varied and complex cracking phenomena associated with solidification and solid-state low ductility on the different refractory alloy systems during AM;
• Alloy elements and impurities effect on refractory alloys printability;
• Alloy design for improved printability and performance of refractory alloys.
• The use of conventional and advanced phase transformation models on the design and optimization of refractory alloys is better suited for different AM processes.
• Relationships between solidification structure, impurities segregation, solid-state crystallographic structure, and defect formation during additive manufacturing and the use of fundamental understanding to propose engineering solutions;
• Modeling and simulation of the printing process and phase transformations associated with AM refractory alloys;
• Specific applications or development for key components.

After hosting a very successful and well-attended symposium at TMS 2022 at Anaheim-CA, it has become clear the growth of this area. Therefore, we will be hosting this symposium at TMS 2023, where we expect to have the best researchers in this area sharing their most recent results in this challenging area of additive manufacturing.

Abstracts Due 07/17/2022
Proceedings Plan Planned:

A 3D Printable Refractory High Entropy Alloy with Excellent Mechanical Properties
Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Coatings for Ultra-high Temperature Applications: A Study on the Effect of Substate Dilution
Characterizing the High Temperature Mechanical Performance and Microstructure of Additively Manufactured Tantalum and Tungsten Alloys
Crack Mitigation Strategies for Pure Tungsten via Laser Powder-bed-fusion
Design of Silicide Strengthened Nb Alloys for Additive Manufacturing
Development and Additive Manufacturing of RHEA for Extreme Environment Applications
Development and Assessment of a Novel TiVNbMo-based Refractory High Entropy Alloy Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion for High Temperature Applications
Development of Molybdenum Alloys for Use with Powder Blown Laser Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Development of Molybdenum Parts for High Temperature Applications with Laser Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Development of W-based Alloys for High Temperature Applications by Additive Manufacturing
Direct Energy Deposition of Nb-containing Refractory Alloys: Solidification Behavior, Microstructural Evolution, and Mechanical Properties
Directed Energy Deposition of Niobium and Related Alloys
Elucidating the Porosity-Cracking Tradeoff in Laser-based Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Metals
Enabling Future Concepts in Nuclear Energy through the Use of Additive Manufacturing on Titanium – Zirconium – Molybdenum Alloy
ICME Analysis Microcracking of Tungsten in Rapid Solidification
Influence of Dislocation Structures on Mechanical Response in Additively-manufactured Ta-2.5%W Across Length Scales
Interfacial Microstructures between Mo and Stainless Steel Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition for High Temperature Service Applications
Investigating AM High Temperature Multi-materials with Nickel and Niobium Alloys
Investigation into Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum (TZM) Alloy
Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Niobium and Exploration of Gradient Composites by Local Addition of Nanoparticles
Laser Powder Bed Fusion of W-24Re for Propulsion Applications
Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process Development for Re
Materials and Processing Design for Binder Jet Additive Manufacturing of Tungsten Alloys
Melt Pool Geometry and Solidification Texture in Selective Laser Melting of Refractory Alloys
Novel Refractory Metals Optimized for Additive Manufacture to Improve Printability and Properties
Probing Processing Defects in Novel Refractory High Entropy Alloys via In-situ Dynamic X-ray Radiography
Processing, Structure, and Properties of Electron Beam Melting Additively Manufactured Pure Tungsten
Rhenium Modified Spherical Tungsten Powder for Additive Manufacturing
Selective Laser Melting of AlCoCrMoNbNiW Refractory High Entropy Alloy: Microstructure and High Temperature Hardness Analysis
Study of Printability and Melt Pool geometry in W & W -alloys by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Towards High-Throughput Assessment of Printability in Refractory Alloys Systems for Laser-Powder Bed Fusion

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