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Meeting 2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Primary Aluminum Industry - Energy and Emission Reductions: An LMD Symposium in Honor of Halvor Kvande
Presentation Title Scale Formation in Primary Aluminium Production
Author(s) Morten Isaksen, Nancy J. Holt
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Morten Isaksen
Abstract Scope The presence of scale in process equipment during production of primary aluminium represents a factor that contributes to reduced performance. Formation of hard scale is best known in the oxide transport, operation of gas treatment units and heat exchangers. The maintenance cost of removing scale from process equipment may be significant. Studies have been carried out dealing with the formation of scale at various locations throughout the off-gas system from an electrolytic cell. Few specific hypothesis about factors leading to the formation exist. Sulfur seems to play a more important role than reported earlier. This publication covers 4 different scale types and their possible chemical formation pathways.
Proceedings Inclusion? Planned: Light Metals
Keywords Aluminum, Characterization, Electrometallurgy


A Historical Review of Aluminum Reduction Cell Start-up and Early Operation
Direct and Indirect CO2 Equivalent Emissions from Primary Aluminium Production
Gas Recycling and Energy Recovery. Future Handling of Flue Gas from Aluminium Electrolysis Cells
Halvor Kvande: An Academic Ambassador in Aluminum Between China and Norway
Ready-to-Use Cathodes in High Amperage Technologies
Reflections on the Low Voltage Anode Effect in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells
Sampling and Analysis Methodology Review to Report Total PFC Emissions
Scale Formation in Primary Aluminium Production
The TMS Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course – History, Development of Contents, and Future
Vaporization of Fluorides from Aluminium Cells. Part II: Treatment of Spent Potlining in a Laboratory Furnace
Vaporization of Fluorides from Aluminium Cells. Part I: Theoretical Study on Replacement of Aluminium Fluoride and Soda

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