The heat capacity of a material is a concept taught in all general chemistry classes and is explored in only slightly more depth in the typical physical chemistry course. True, accurate low-temperature heat capacity data is used to calculate enthalpy increments and the absolute entropy, vital for determining the complete thermodynamic landscape for materials, but heat capacity data can also provide valuable insight into the fundamental properties of a wide range of geologic and technically important materials. In this talk we will provide a brief survey and introduction to modern heat capacity measurements and how the data is analyzed to extract information about the lattice, electronic, magnetic, nuclear, and defects of the material. Several examples will be provided to demonstrate the breadth of materials that can be studied. The goal is to remind the materials community that heat capacity data can be an important tool in our toolbox of methods.