Deriving multiscale structure-property relationships is critical for application-oriented design and manufacture of hierarchical nanomaterials, yet it remains challenging to quantify structure across multiple length scales as well as in operando. We leveraged complementary hard and soft X-ray scattering to map the structure of self-aligned CNT “forests” from angstroms to micrometers and across entire 4-inch wafer substrates. Then we deployed these scattering techniques in two representative applications to link structure and function by interrogating: 1) the multiscale helical structure in twist-spun CNT yarns during tensile loading; and 2) the nanoconfined structure of ions inside carbon nanopores during supercapacitor cycling. These advances in coupling functional CNT materials with real-time X-ray characterization offer mechanistic insight and potential for discovery and design optimization not afforded by conventional ex situ post analyses.
ACS Nano, 11 (6):5405-5416, 2017; Carbon, 159:236-246, 2020; Carbon, 187:415-424, 2022; Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 11, 15, 6150-6155, 2020.