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Meeting 2024 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Advances in Pyrometallurgy: Furnace Containment
Presentation Title Characterization of a Nickel Flash Smelter Refractory Material – The Effect of Thermal Gradient
Author(s) Juho Lehmusto, Saara Söyrinki, Juha Lagerbom, Tuomas Jokiaho, Zaiqing Que, Jorma Määttä, Leena Hupa, Elina Huttunen-Saarivirta, Mari Lindgren
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Juho Lehmusto
Abstract Scope Magnesia-chromite (MgCr2O4) spinel-based refractories are applied in copper and nickel flash smelting furnaces, where the refractories experience high temperatures but also thermal gradients due to the cooling of the walls. In the gas space, the refractories are subjected to an aggressive environment with high SO2 concentrations. Furthermore, the increased use of recycled material streams has introduced new reactive impurities, such as halides, to the process. Therefore, the interactions between the refractories and gaseous species as well as the related reaction mechanisms need to be understood. This study presents a comparison between ac-received and spent refractories from a nickel flash smelting furnace to identify the reactive species and shed more light on their reaction mechanisms. The thermal gradient over the refractory is expected to affect the microstructure and diffusion of elements within the structure. Therefore, special attention was paid to the role of the temperature gradient in the abovementioned interactions.
Proceedings Inclusion? Planned:
Keywords Characterization, High-Temperature Materials, Pyrometallurgy


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Characterization of a Nickel Flash Smelter Refractory Material – The Effect of Thermal Gradient
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Considerations for Robust Containment of Operating Furnaces
Corrosion Behavior of MgO-C Refractory in the Electric Arc Furnace that Entirely Uses Direct Reduced Iron as Raw Materials
Corrosion of Alkali Metals on SiC-Si3N4 Refractory of Pusher Kiln
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Development of Prediction Criteria for Gas Channeling in Blast Furnace
Electric Furnace Integrity Practices and Design Improvements Over 45 Years of Operation - Sudbury Integrated Nickel Operations, A Glencore Company
Flexospheres Technology - Improved Flexibility and Corrosion Resistance of Fired Magnesia-chromite Bricks
Freeport-McMoRan Miami - Waste Heat Boiler Availability Improvements
Important Microstructural Features of Refractory Bricks and Their Relation With the Degradation Mechanisms
Improving Maintenance Safety and Campaign Life of Tuyere Lines in Bath Smelting and Converting Using Punchless Tuyeres
Long Long-term Safety Work of 3 # Blast Furnace Hearth
Reflections on the Design of Cooling Systems for Furnace Containment
Slag Optimization with Respect to Steel Quality and Refractory Protection in a Steel Ladle Furnace
Study on Slag Phase Erosion Behavior and Mechanism of Carbon Composite Brick in Hydrogen-rich Blast Furnace Hearth
Sustainability in the Production of Refractory Products - Ensuring an Optimal Circular Economy
The Importance of Understanding Mechanisms in Open-bath (DC) Processes Related to Furnace Containment
The Optimisation of ISASMELT™ Furnace Linings and Cooling Elements to Achieve Low Annualised Costs

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