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Meeting 2023 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2023 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Robotic Path Planning for Wire Arc Additive Applications of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys
Author(s) Tiffany Quigley, Devon Goodspeed, Joshua Penney, Alyssa Schroder, Ilana Lu, Bradley Howell Jared
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Tiffany Quigley
Abstract Scope The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is partnering with The University of Tennessee in development of large aerospace structures via robotically controlled wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) of aluminum alloys, primarily aluminum 2319. Objective benchmarks include fabrication of thin-wall and bulk geometries with both gravity and non-gravity aligned features. Demonstration of these structures will encompass welding process parameter development via pulsed gas metal arc welding process (GMAW) for the base layer and cold metal transfer (CMT) deposition for all subsequent layers. Work is also on-going to advance path planning algorithms for printing bulk, non-gravity aligned (NGA) features and structures. Finally, in-situ melt pool monitoring capabilities will be conducted for future implementation into NGA process controls. BULK NGA PROCESS CONDITIONS: Baseline CMT deposition parameters were explored using a Fronius VR 7000 power supply and single-wire torch with gravity aligned single wall structures defining robot velocity, arc waveform settings, wire feed speed, contact-tip-to-workpiece distance (CTWD) and interpass temperature. Gravity aligned sample parts were created using these parameters to ensure material quality prior to advancing into NGA thin wall structures. Experiments will be conducted to characterize melt pool behavior with torch orientation angle to develop robot configurations necessary for NGA printing. Previous work in gravity aligned bulk structures is being used to develop the process required to create NGA bulk structures. This background consists of elements such as multi-pass depositions, bead overlaps, start-stop interfaces, and material filling. Process performance is determined based on weld bead consistency, part dimensional accuracy, and minimizing build defects. Final material characterization including microstructures and mechanical properties will be conducted on the printed geometry and compared to characterization of samples from the development process. BULK NGA PATH PLANNING PROCESSES: Advancement in creating bulk walled geometry capabilities is a necessary integration into UT’s previously developed path planning program. NGA printing is an existing capability of the software but has only been applied to thin wall, single pass applications in low carbon steel. Further exploration of NGA robot trajectories to accommodate bulk features with exterior contour paths, subsequent infill patterns, overlapping beads, and side walls is required for modification to the original software capability. These aspects of the software must be optimized with respect to melt pool motion and shape to minimize form errors and build defects. Path plans designed for thin-walled NGA structures provide a solid baseline when tool pathing for thick-walled NGA structures. Bead behavior is expected to be similar yet modified in NGA paths when transitioning from thin to thick walls with the addition of multiple passes and/or weave pattern width. Another consideration is ensuring proper heat input to the base plate. Pulsed GMAW is used on the base layer of thin wall structures to ensure proper heating of the base plate but may be rendered irrelevant since multiple passes or weave patterns provide increased heating. IMPLEMENTATION OF IN-SITU MELT POOL MONITORING: Work has also been started to monitor NGA melt pools in-situ with an eye toward future process control. Multi-mode sensing is conducted via optical imaging, infrared thermography, and acoustic monitoring to monitor the single-wire CMT welding torch. Additional performance elements of the welding torch are also monitored using a LabView integrated data acquisition program and includes torch tip position, orientation, arc current, arc voltage and wire feed speed. A Xiris XIR-1800 short wave IR camera is the primary source for melt pool monitoring. Thermal imaging will be of used to capture welding interpass temperature and deposited bead geometry via a FLIR A35 thermal camera. Weld pool stability will also be analyzed and recorded via acoustic monitoring. The intent is to relate process signatures with their corresponding weld bead characteristics to inform an operator of potential issues during material deposition. This knowledge will be applied to non-gravity aligned experiments, working towards real-time feedback control of contours, overlaps, and start-stop positions. RESULTS: Weld test beads were deposited and adjustments to printing process parameters were made to determine proper voltage, current, wire feed speed, CTWD and tool path speed. After base layer process conditions were determined, beads were stacked to determine layer printing process parameters. These process conditions were established as job numbers to be called during printing by the robot program. A diamond geometry was designed to show weld bead behavior in both acute and obtuse angled corners. The path plan was successfully printed in aluminum 2319 using the aforementioned process and sent for metallurgy to examine printed material microstructures and to quantify the presence of porosity. CONCLUSIONS: Process parameters and tool paths have been defined and successfully applied for thin wall gravity aligned structures in aluminum 2319. It has been found that while thin wall geometries require pulsed GMAW for base layers this may not be required for thick-walled structures. On-going work is focused on printing a NASA defined thin-wall structure. Data acquisition from this print will be used to inform further thick wall geometry path plan development and subsequent NGA structures.
Proceedings Inclusion? Undecided


A Brief History of Welding Metallurgy in IIW
A Fundamental Investigation into Intermetallic Formation and Growth in the Aluminum-Iron System using Resistance-based Diffusion Couples
A New CALPHAD-based Finite Element Tool for Additive Manufacturing Simulation
Accelerating Ni-Cr Filler Metal Design with a Coupled CALPHAD and Data Analytics Approach
Additive Manufacturing and Welding of Ni-base Superalloys for Concentrated Solar Power Systems
Additive Manufacturing of Steel-aluminum Bimetallic Structures
Alloy Design and Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Materials for Olefin Furnaces
Alloy Development via Multi-wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (m-WAAM)
Application of NDE Techniques for Safer Pressure Vessels
Applications of Emerging Artificial Intelligence Tools in Additive Manufacturing
Arc and Droplet Transfer Behavior During Electrode-negative Polarity Cold Metal Transfer and Electrode-positive Pulse Gas Metal Arc Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Arc Length Behaviour and Voltage Predictions for GMAW-Sp Aluminum Procedures in the Lincoln Procedure Handbook
Automated Vision-based Laser Weld and Braze Quality Systems
Bond Formation Mechanism of High-frequency Electric Resistance Welding Of X65 Grade Pipeline Steel by Physical Simulation
Capacitor Discharge Based Resistance Welding of Aluminum Alloy and Galvanized Steel Sheets
Carbide Precipitation during Temper Bead Welding in the HAZ of Low Alloy Steels
Challenges in Wire-Arc Additive Manufacture of Nickel Aluminum Bronze
Characterization of Vibration Welded Wood
Charpy Reconstitution Joining Procedure: Supporting Reactor Pressure Vessel Operation Beyond 60 Years
Comparison of Constant Load and Slow Strain Rate Tensile Tests for Evaluation of Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Susceptibility in Dissimilar Metal Weld
Comparison of Crystallographic Texture Before and After Post-weld Heat Treatment of Electric Resistance Welded X65 Linepipe
Computational Design of Experiment Process-microstructure-property Optimization in Welding and Additive Manufacturing
Computational Process-Microstructure-Property Optimization for Fe-10Ni Groove Welds
Connecting X-ray Computed Tomography to Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V using Quantitative Fractography
Construction of a Unified Fatigue S-N Curve Incorporating the Effects of Residual Stress Level in Welded Joints
Correlation Between the Coarse and Fine Grain Haz Hardness of Pipeline Girth Welds
Creep Performance of Austenitic Stainless Steels Processed with Wire Arc Directed Energy Deposition
Critical Evaluation of NDE Methods and Their Effectiveness for Defect Detection in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Components
Crystallographic Texture and Microstructure of Dissimilar Steel Welds for Filler Metal Selection
Database of Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Susceptibility in Dissimilar Metal Welds
Deep Learning Based Real-time and In-situ Monitoring of Weld Penetration: Where We are and What are Needed Revolutionary Solutions?
Defect Formation Mitigation during Laser Welding of Aluminum Alloys using Beam Oscillation
Deleterious Effects of Laser Welding Nitinol without Argon Shielding Gas
Development of a Fast Analysis Solver for Welding Sequence Optimization of Ship Structures
Development of a New Technique to Assess Spot Welding Cracking of Gen3 High Strength Steel Sheets
Dissimilar Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V to Stainless Steel Under Thermal Conditions used for Glass Sealing
Do We Need a New Foundation to Use Deep Learning to Monitor Weld Penetration?
Droplet Temperature Measurements in GMAW
Effect of Additive Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AF9628 Steel
Effect of Base Metal Dilution on Microstructure and Thermal Stability in Anviloy Wire-H13 Clads
Effect of Martensite-Austenite Morphology on Charpy Toughness of Cold-wire Tandem Submerged-arc Welded X70 Steel
Effect of Preheating Temperatures on Microstructure of L-DED Grade 91
Effect of Retained δ-ferrite on the Nucleation of Laves Phase during Artificial Aging in Grade P92 Steel Welds
Effect of the Notching Method on Charpy V-notch Impact Energy Outcomes
Effect of Wire Preheat and Feed Rate in X80 Steel Laser Welds
Effects of Deposition Sequence on Microstructural Evolution in Additively Manufactured Cu-Cr-Nb Alloy / Superalloy Bimetallic Structures
Energy Distribution and Effects on Weld and Defect Formation during Beam Oscillation Laser Welding of a Nickel Alloy
Erection Stage Longi Welding Robot System in Shipbuilding
Estimation of Bead Size and Catchment Efficiency in Laser Cladding
Evaluation of Inoculated High Strength Aluminum Wire 6061 for GMA DED
Feasibility of LP-DED and L-PBF Processes in the Repair of GTD 111 Turbine Blades using René 65 Powder
Fluidity of Aluminum Welding Wires
Friction Stir Welding of Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) and High Hardness Armor (HHA) Steels
From Frustrating to Flawless: Mastering Class A Aluminum Resistance Welding
General Linear Models in Additive Manufacturing: Interpretability and Prediction of Aggregated Ti-6Al-4V Fatigue Data
General Thermomechanical Model of FSW Based on a Characteristic Temperature for Deformation and Heat Transfer
Geometrical Feature Development for Multi-Process DED of Aerospace Structures using Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS)
High Ductility Brazes of Nickel-superalloys Using a Multi Principal Element Alloy Filler
Hot Wire Semi-auto Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) for Shipbuilding Applications
Identifying Deposit Profile for Gas Metal Arc Directed Energy Deposition
Industrialization Challenges in Welding and Large Scale Metal Fabrication
Influence of Alloy Composition and Nitride Formation on Delta Phase Precipitation in Additively Manufactured Inconel® 625
Influence of Hydrogen Shielding Gas Additions on Base Metal Dilution, Bead Shape and Wall Buildability in Fe-10Ni Gas Metal Arc DED
Influence of Welding Parameters on Weld Reinforcement in Tandem Submerged Arc Welding
Inoculated High Strength High Strength Aluminum Wire Feedstocks for Welding and DED
Integrating a Novel Approach to Advanced Materials during Resistance Spot Welding for the Automotive Industry
Investigation of Defects Process Map in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Fe-10 wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Induced Cracking Susceptibility using the Gapped Bead on Plate (GBOP) Test
Investigation of Intermetallic Phase Formation during RSW of Advanced Automotive Steels and Aluminum Alloys
Isothermal Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel to Ni-based Alloys Dissimilar Joints
Laser Beam Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) of an Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu Soft Magnetic Alloy
Laser Beam Welding of Wrought and Additively Manufactured Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr Alloys
Laser Welding of Al-Cu Interconnects for E-Mobility Applications: Effect of Beam Oscillation on Metal Mixing, Microstructure, and Mechanical Property
Linear Solid State Welding w/ NO Fusion Line. Fine Grained Base to Base Using 95% Less Energy
Machine Learning for GMAW Weld Quality
Machine Learning for Predicting Weld Quality and Properties in Resistance Spot Welding Process
Mapping of a Resistance Spot Weld Properties onto a Space Defined by Base Material Attributes
Mechanizing Self Shielded Flux Core Wire to Achieve Robust Toughness on Girth Welds in Pipeline Construction
Metallurgical Characterization of Rotary Inertia Friction Welded Dissimilar 422 Martensitic Stainless Steel to 4140 Low Alloy Steel Piston Joints
Methodology Development of Ultra-high Temperature Mechanical Performance of Additively Manufactured Refractory Alloys
Microstructural Heterogeneities in Electron Beam Additively Manufactured Haynes 282
Monitoring Torch Position and Weld Quality with Reversed Electrode Image during GTAW Process
Monitoring Weld Penetration using a Deep Learning Model Pre-trained from Filtered Current
My 40 Years as a Welding Engineer in the Oil and Gas Industry
Next Generation Double Electrode GMAW Processes for Precision Fillet Welding
Nickel Aluminum Bronze Weld Metal Microstructures in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Cryogenic Cooling
Nondestructive Characterization of Grade 92 Steel Weld Microstructures using, Micro-resolution Ultrasonic Imaging System.
Numerical Modeling of Arc Plasma and Shielding Gas Flows in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Tall Walls
Numerical Modeling of Resistance Spot Welding Processes and Liquid Metal Embrittlement Cracking
Numerical Modelling of Temperature and Velocity of WC-Co-Cr Particles in the HVOF Process using DJ2700 Gun and Hydrogen as a Fuel
Online Quality Monitoring Method in Gas Metal Arc Welding Based on Vision Camera and Laser Vision Sensor
Open-source Numerical Modeling of Solidification Cracking Susceptibility: Application to Refractory Alloy Systems
Optimization and Characterization of FSpJ for Al Alloys and Polymeric Materials: Experimental and Numerical Investigations
OSU Faculty Overview-Metallurgy and Weldability
OSU Faculty Overview-Processes
OSU Faculty Overview - Design, Modeling and Nondestructive Evaluation
Overview of Arc Welding Activities at IIW and Standardization of Laser Welding/Cutting
Overview of RW Projects for the Automotive Industry
Plenary Talk: Delta Ferrite and Rapidly Solidified Microstructure in Welding and Additive Manufacturing of Martensitic Steels
Practical Calculation of Cooling Rate, HAZ Width, and Thermal Features in Welding and Additive Manufacturing
Precipitation Kinetics in Additively Manufactured Alloy K-500 and Commission IV Activities
Predicting Laser Weld Variability in 304 Stainless Steel Resulting from Composition Variation
Process Advantages of Laser Hybrid Welding of Thick-walled Steel Structures of Wind Tower
Process Control of a Custom Designed Adaptive Weld Head
Reduction of Cold Cracking in Welded Overlays via Reduced Martensite Start Temperature
Robotic Path Planning for Wire Arc Additive Applications of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys
Robotizing Double-electrode GMAW by Learning from Human Welders
Scanning for Metrology in Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing
Shoring Up Long Lead Time Supply Chain Issues of Forgings and Castings using Advanced Manufacturing
SiC and Nickel-base Superalloy Dissimilar Joining using Multi-principal Element Alloy Fillers
Silicate-free Tandem GMAW for Shipbuilding Applications
Solidification Behavior and Microstructure Evolution in Dissimilar Electron Beam Welds between Commercially Pure Iron and Nickel
Solidification Behavior of Laser-wire Directed Energy Deposition Austenitic Stainless Steel
Stress Relaxation Cracking Susceptibility in 347H SS Welds and Their Repairs
The Ohio State University Welding Engineering Program - the First 75 Years
The Role of Diffusion Brazing Technology for the Repair of Gas Turbine Engine Components
The Role of Material Selection and Thermal Cycling on Tool Life in Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding
Thermal Faceting on the Ductility-Dip Cracking Fracture Surfaces of Nickel-Based Alloys – Occurrence, Characterization, and Implications for the Cracking Mechanism
Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Welding Defect-containing Boiler Water Walls
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Calculation of Stainless-steel Solidification – revisiting the WRC-1992 Diagram
Ultrasonic Assisted Soldering of Metallized Polymer Current Collectors for Li-Ion Batteries
Ultrasonic Welding of Dissimilar Materials
Ultrasonically Assisted Resistance Spot Welding of Multilayer Foils in Battery Manufacturing
WE in the Power Generation Industry
Weld Vac – A Quiet, Clean Metal Removal System
Welding Engineering in the Aircraft Engine Industry
Welding in Space: Past, Present, and Future
Wobble Laser Beam Welding in Keyhole Mode

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