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Meeting 2023 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2023 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Investigation of Fe-10 wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Induced Cracking Susceptibility using the Gapped Bead on Plate (GBOP) Test
Author(s) Tyler Christ, Daniel H. Bechetti
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Tyler Christ
Abstract Scope Hydrogen effects in high-strength steel weldments have been well-studied by many industries due to their role in structural failures. When diffusion and aggregation of hydrogen occurs in steels, a phenomenon called hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) can occur. HIC can reduce fatigue performance and ductility, and the fabrication controls needed to avoid it can be very costly. The four necessary factors that govern HIC susceptibility are: (1) the amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal or heat affected zone (HAZ), (2) the amount of tensile residual stress, (3) the presence of a susceptible weld metal and/or HAZ microstructure, and (4) temperatures between 200C and -100C. Welding inherently produces high tensile residual stress (particularly in thick sections), and HIC-susceptible microstructures and service temperatures are common for high-strength steel structures. Over the last decade, the U.S. Navy has been investigating a high-strength steel welding consumable containing 10 wt.% Ni, dubbed 10Ni steel, that has demonstrated a desirable combination of high strength and good toughness. The material is primarily martensitic but contains 3-5 wt.% retained austenite. It is hypothesized that the retained austenite in the 10Ni steel weld metal may provide a sink (or trap) for hydrogen, potentially reducing the necessary preheat temperature required to mitigate HIC. The objective of this work was to conduct a series of experiments to quantify the evolution of hydrogen from 10Ni steel weld deposits and evaluate its HIC susceptibility using small-scale weldability tests. The hot carrier gas extraction method was used to quantify diffusible hydrogen in 10Ni steel, MIL-100S-1, and two MIL-120S-1 weld deposits. All wires used were 1.2mm diameter. 10Ni steel wire was bare, while MIL-100S-1 and MIL-120S-1 wire were copper coated. Deposits fabricated using 98% Ar-2% O2 and 95% Ar-5% CO2 shielding gases were evaluated at test temperatures between 400C and 625C. The tests performed at 400C were in accordance with AWS A4.3, Addendum1, and higher temperature tests performed to release hydrogen from potential trapping sites. The second segment of testing was performing GBOP tests, in accordance with AWS B4.0, using 10Ni steel, MIL-100S-1, and MIL-120S-1 weld deposits. The filler material, metal transfer mode, preheat, and heat input were the variables of interest with test conditions repeated in triplicate. The welds were clamped for a minimum of 97 hours before being heat tinted and fractured to reveal hydrogen cracking. Heat tinted areas indicative of hydrogen damage were measured using ImageJ image processing and analysis software to determine the percent area of cracking. Weld metal chemistry and microhardness were measured on one weld per parameter set to add additional context for differences in percent cracking. Empirical models from the literature for prediction of critical preheat for 0% cracking in the GBOP test were evaluated against the experimental results collected in this study and typical high strength steel preheat requirements. At an extraction temperature of 400C, 10Ni steel demonstrated diffusible hydrogen values of 1.10 mL/100g and 1.15 mL/100g when deposited using the spray metal transfer gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process using 98% Ar-2% O2 and 95% Ar-5% CO2 shielding gas, respectively. The low diffusible hydrogen contents were attributed to the fact that the electrode was both lubricant and feed aid free. During the higher temperature diffusible hydrogen tests, the average measured values increased to 1.70 mL/100g at 500C and 1.72 mL/100g at 625C. During GBOP testing of 10Ni steel, 0% cracking was achieved with spray transfer GMAW by preheating the test piece to 65.6C for a heat input of 0.984 kJ/mm and at room temperature for a heat input of 2.322 kJ/mm. The weldments testing the effect of metal transfer mode showed that pulsed GMAW had a lower average percent cracking than spray transfer GMAW under the same heat input and preheat conditions. As a comparison to 10Ni steel, weld deposits from two different heats of MIL-120S-1 and one heat of MIL-100S-1 were tested at 65.6C preheat and a heat input of 0.984 J/mm. The first heat of MIL-120S-1, which contained 7.78 mL/100g of diffusible hydrogen, demonstrated 72% cracking. The second heat of MIL-120S-1 contained 4.60 mL/100g of diffusible hydrogen and demonstrated 79% cracking. The large differences in cracking between 10Ni steel and MIL-120S require additional testing to determine if they were primarily caused by lower HIC susceptibility or the lower diffusible hydrogen content. The MIL-100S-1 wire contained 3.2 mL/100g of diffusible hydrogen and demonstrated 40% cracking. The empirical models for prediction of critical preheat for 0% cracking had poor agreement with the weld deposits evaluated in this study. The models are based on various carbon equivalence (CE) equations derived for the select chemistry ranges used during their development. To better predict the necessary preheat for current high strength steels and the 10Ni steel chemistries being tested, different CE equations were applied to the literature models. However, none of the CE equations’ chemistry ranges fully encompassed the 10Ni steel’s chemistry. The changes in the empirical models’ predicted preheats were driven by differences in CE equations used. 10Ni steel weld deposits were investigated to better understand their hydrogen content and susceptibility to HIC. Diffusible hydrogen testing demonstrated low diffusible hydrogen contents of bare wire 10Ni steel weld deposits. The low amount of diffusible hydrogen was attributed to the lack of hygroscopic feed aids or lubricants on the 10Ni consumable. Future work using 10Ni steel wires with feed aid will be needed as a comparison. GBOP testing showed that 0% cracking for 10Ni steel deposits can be achieved by increases in preheat temperature and heat input. Additionally, the 10Ni deposits appeared to require a lower preheat for 0% cracking than the MIL-120S-1 and MIL-100S-1 deposits. The cracking seen during testing using MIL-120S-1 was likely convoluted by the much higher diffusible hydrogen content of those deposits. However, the MIL-100S-1 results offer more conclusive evidence of the promising behavior of 10Ni steel. The five equations investigated to predict necessary preheat and evaluate the severity of the GBOP testing showed varying results and were largely depended on the CE equation used.
Proceedings Inclusion? Undecided


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A Fundamental Investigation into Intermetallic Formation and Growth in the Aluminum-Iron System using Resistance-based Diffusion Couples
A New CALPHAD-based Finite Element Tool for Additive Manufacturing Simulation
Accelerating Ni-Cr Filler Metal Design with a Coupled CALPHAD and Data Analytics Approach
Additive Manufacturing and Welding of Ni-base Superalloys for Concentrated Solar Power Systems
Additive Manufacturing of Steel-aluminum Bimetallic Structures
Alloy Design and Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Materials for Olefin Furnaces
Alloy Development via Multi-wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (m-WAAM)
Application of NDE Techniques for Safer Pressure Vessels
Applications of Emerging Artificial Intelligence Tools in Additive Manufacturing
Arc and Droplet Transfer Behavior During Electrode-negative Polarity Cold Metal Transfer and Electrode-positive Pulse Gas Metal Arc Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Arc Length Behaviour and Voltage Predictions for GMAW-Sp Aluminum Procedures in the Lincoln Procedure Handbook
Automated Vision-based Laser Weld and Braze Quality Systems
Bond Formation Mechanism of High-frequency Electric Resistance Welding Of X65 Grade Pipeline Steel by Physical Simulation
Capacitor Discharge Based Resistance Welding of Aluminum Alloy and Galvanized Steel Sheets
Carbide Precipitation during Temper Bead Welding in the HAZ of Low Alloy Steels
Challenges in Wire-Arc Additive Manufacture of Nickel Aluminum Bronze
Characterization of Vibration Welded Wood
Charpy Reconstitution Joining Procedure: Supporting Reactor Pressure Vessel Operation Beyond 60 Years
Comparison of Constant Load and Slow Strain Rate Tensile Tests for Evaluation of Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Susceptibility in Dissimilar Metal Weld
Comparison of Crystallographic Texture Before and After Post-weld Heat Treatment of Electric Resistance Welded X65 Linepipe
Computational Design of Experiment Process-microstructure-property Optimization in Welding and Additive Manufacturing
Computational Process-Microstructure-Property Optimization for Fe-10Ni Groove Welds
Connecting X-ray Computed Tomography to Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V using Quantitative Fractography
Construction of a Unified Fatigue S-N Curve Incorporating the Effects of Residual Stress Level in Welded Joints
Correlation Between the Coarse and Fine Grain Haz Hardness of Pipeline Girth Welds
Creep Performance of Austenitic Stainless Steels Processed with Wire Arc Directed Energy Deposition
Critical Evaluation of NDE Methods and Their Effectiveness for Defect Detection in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Components
Crystallographic Texture and Microstructure of Dissimilar Steel Welds for Filler Metal Selection
Database of Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Susceptibility in Dissimilar Metal Welds
Deep Learning Based Real-time and In-situ Monitoring of Weld Penetration: Where We are and What are Needed Revolutionary Solutions?
Defect Formation Mitigation during Laser Welding of Aluminum Alloys using Beam Oscillation
Deleterious Effects of Laser Welding Nitinol without Argon Shielding Gas
Development of a Fast Analysis Solver for Welding Sequence Optimization of Ship Structures
Development of a New Technique to Assess Spot Welding Cracking of Gen3 High Strength Steel Sheets
Dissimilar Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V to Stainless Steel Under Thermal Conditions used for Glass Sealing
Do We Need a New Foundation to Use Deep Learning to Monitor Weld Penetration?
Droplet Temperature Measurements in GMAW
Effect of Additive Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AF9628 Steel
Effect of Base Metal Dilution on Microstructure and Thermal Stability in Anviloy Wire-H13 Clads
Effect of Martensite-Austenite Morphology on Charpy Toughness of Cold-wire Tandem Submerged-arc Welded X70 Steel
Effect of Preheating Temperatures on Microstructure of L-DED Grade 91
Effect of Retained δ-ferrite on the Nucleation of Laves Phase during Artificial Aging in Grade P92 Steel Welds
Effect of the Notching Method on Charpy V-notch Impact Energy Outcomes
Effect of Wire Preheat and Feed Rate in X80 Steel Laser Welds
Effects of Deposition Sequence on Microstructural Evolution in Additively Manufactured Cu-Cr-Nb Alloy / Superalloy Bimetallic Structures
Energy Distribution and Effects on Weld and Defect Formation during Beam Oscillation Laser Welding of a Nickel Alloy
Erection Stage Longi Welding Robot System in Shipbuilding
Estimation of Bead Size and Catchment Efficiency in Laser Cladding
Evaluation of Inoculated High Strength Aluminum Wire 6061 for GMA DED
Feasibility of LP-DED and L-PBF Processes in the Repair of GTD 111 Turbine Blades using Ren 65 Powder
Fluidity of Aluminum Welding Wires
Friction Stir Welding of Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) and High Hardness Armor (HHA) Steels
From Frustrating to Flawless: Mastering Class A Aluminum Resistance Welding
General Linear Models in Additive Manufacturing: Interpretability and Prediction of Aggregated Ti-6Al-4V Fatigue Data
General Thermomechanical Model of FSW Based on a Characteristic Temperature for Deformation and Heat Transfer
Geometrical Feature Development for Multi-Process DED of Aerospace Structures using Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS)
High Ductility Brazes of Nickel-superalloys Using a Multi Principal Element Alloy Filler
Hot Wire Semi-auto Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) for Shipbuilding Applications
Identifying Deposit Profile for Gas Metal Arc Directed Energy Deposition
Industrialization Challenges in Welding and Large Scale Metal Fabrication
Influence of Alloy Composition and Nitride Formation on Delta Phase Precipitation in Additively Manufactured Inconel 625
Influence of Hydrogen Shielding Gas Additions on Base Metal Dilution, Bead Shape and Wall Buildability in Fe-10Ni Gas Metal Arc DED
Influence of Welding Parameters on Weld Reinforcement in Tandem Submerged Arc Welding
Inoculated High Strength High Strength Aluminum Wire Feedstocks for Welding and DED
Integrating a Novel Approach to Advanced Materials during Resistance Spot Welding for the Automotive Industry
Investigation of Defects Process Map in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Fe-10 wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Induced Cracking Susceptibility using the Gapped Bead on Plate (GBOP) Test
Investigation of Intermetallic Phase Formation during RSW of Advanced Automotive Steels and Aluminum Alloys
Isothermal Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel to Ni-based Alloys Dissimilar Joints
Laser Beam Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) of an Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu Soft Magnetic Alloy
Laser Beam Welding of Wrought and Additively Manufactured Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr Alloys
Laser Welding of Al-Cu Interconnects for E-Mobility Applications: Effect of Beam Oscillation on Metal Mixing, Microstructure, and Mechanical Property
Linear Solid State Welding w/ NO Fusion Line. Fine Grained Base to Base Using 95% Less Energy
Machine Learning for GMAW Weld Quality
Machine Learning for Predicting Weld Quality and Properties in Resistance Spot Welding Process
Mapping of a Resistance Spot Weld Properties onto a Space Defined by Base Material Attributes
Mechanizing Self Shielded Flux Core Wire to Achieve Robust Toughness on Girth Welds in Pipeline Construction
Metallurgical Characterization of Rotary Inertia Friction Welded Dissimilar 422 Martensitic Stainless Steel to 4140 Low Alloy Steel Piston Joints
Methodology Development of Ultra-high Temperature Mechanical Performance of Additively Manufactured Refractory Alloys
Microstructural Heterogeneities in Electron Beam Additively Manufactured Haynes 282
Monitoring Torch Position and Weld Quality with Reversed Electrode Image during GTAW Process
Monitoring Weld Penetration using a Deep Learning Model Pre-trained from Filtered Current
My 40 Years as a Welding Engineer in the Oil and Gas Industry
Next Generation Double Electrode GMAW Processes for Precision Fillet Welding
Nickel Aluminum Bronze Weld Metal Microstructures in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Cryogenic Cooling
Nondestructive Characterization of Grade 92 Steel Weld Microstructures using, Micro-resolution Ultrasonic Imaging System.
Numerical Modeling of Arc Plasma and Shielding Gas Flows in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Tall Walls
Numerical Modeling of Resistance Spot Welding Processes and Liquid Metal Embrittlement Cracking
Numerical Modelling of Temperature and Velocity of WC-Co-Cr Particles in the HVOF Process using DJ2700 Gun and Hydrogen as a Fuel
Online Quality Monitoring Method in Gas Metal Arc Welding Based on Vision Camera and Laser Vision Sensor
Open-source Numerical Modeling of Solidification Cracking Susceptibility: Application to Refractory Alloy Systems
Optimization and Characterization of FSpJ for Al Alloys and Polymeric Materials: Experimental and Numerical Investigations
OSU Faculty Overview-Metallurgy and Weldability
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OSU Faculty Overview - Design, Modeling and Nondestructive Evaluation
Overview of Arc Welding Activities at IIW and Standardization of Laser Welding/Cutting
Overview of RW Projects for the Automotive Industry
Plenary Talk: Delta Ferrite and Rapidly Solidified Microstructure in Welding and Additive Manufacturing of Martensitic Steels
Practical Calculation of Cooling Rate, HAZ Width, and Thermal Features in Welding and Additive Manufacturing
Precipitation Kinetics in Additively Manufactured Alloy K-500 and Commission IV Activities
Predicting Laser Weld Variability in 304 Stainless Steel Resulting from Composition Variation
Process Advantages of Laser Hybrid Welding of Thick-walled Steel Structures of Wind Tower
Process Control of a Custom Designed Adaptive Weld Head
Reduction of Cold Cracking in Welded Overlays via Reduced Martensite Start Temperature
Robotic Path Planning for Wire Arc Additive Applications of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys
Robotizing Double-electrode GMAW by Learning from Human Welders
Scanning for Metrology in Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing
Shoring Up Long Lead Time Supply Chain Issues of Forgings and Castings using Advanced Manufacturing
SiC and Nickel-base Superalloy Dissimilar Joining using Multi-principal Element Alloy Fillers
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Solidification Behavior and Microstructure Evolution in Dissimilar Electron Beam Welds between Commercially Pure Iron and Nickel
Solidification Behavior of Laser-wire Directed Energy Deposition Austenitic Stainless Steel
Stress Relaxation Cracking Susceptibility in 347H SS Welds and Their Repairs
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The Role of Diffusion Brazing Technology for the Repair of Gas Turbine Engine Components
The Role of Material Selection and Thermal Cycling on Tool Life in Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding
Thermal Faceting on the Ductility-Dip Cracking Fracture Surfaces of Nickel-Based Alloys – Occurrence, Characterization, and Implications for the Cracking Mechanism
Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Welding Defect-containing Boiler Water Walls
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Calculation of Stainless-steel Solidification – revisiting the WRC-1992 Diagram
Ultrasonic Assisted Soldering of Metallized Polymer Current Collectors for Li-Ion Batteries
Ultrasonic Welding of Dissimilar Materials
Ultrasonically Assisted Resistance Spot Welding of Multilayer Foils in Battery Manufacturing
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Welding in Space: Past, Present, and Future
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