A passive surface layer forms on the stainless alloy, protecting the material when exposed to a harsh service environment. The protective layer is breached under certain conditions by external stimuli such as stress, temperature, radiation, and aggressive chemicals. The stability of the protective layer is closely associated with the microstructural condition of the interface between the substrate and surface layer. For example, the precursor to breakaway oxidation of zircalloy cladding of nuclear fuel rod in loss of coolant accident condition is the transition from a smooth planar oxide–metal interface to a scalloped interface. Understanding the microstructural evolution of the interface (interfacial morphogenesis) during the corrosion process will help design materials with superior corrosion resistance. This presentation will discuss a surface perturbation model to understand the interfacial microstructural evolution of the materials exposed to corrosive environments and correlate the interfacial stability with the corrosion resistance of the material.