An improved thermomechanical treatment (RI-ITMT) containing electrically-assisted recrystallization annealing (EARA) was proposed for manufacturing fine-grained Al-Cu-Li alloy, based on overageing, cold asymmetric rolling and EARA. And the corresponding microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were investigated. The coarse precipitates introduced by overageing changed the deformed microstructure, produced particle affected zones and weakened the shear band, compared with that with no precipitates. The combined action of electric current and coarse precipitates completed the recrystallization within 5 s and the solution process within 180 s, refined the grain size, and improved the strength and ductility. The athermal effect of electric current not only decreased the activation energy increasing the nucleation rate during Discontinuous static recrystallization (dSRX), but also accelerated the diffusion of atom and vacancy promoting recrystallization and the solution treatment. This proposed RI-ITMT containing EARA possesses the synergetic capacity of optimizing microstructure and improving strength and ductility for Al-Cu-Li alloy.