The promise of quality assurance is exciting - ensure that a process is sufficiently well-understood through data, theory, and accurate models to predict, within a degree of confidence, that a given material state will be produced with an expected set of properties and performance. This presentation will describe, by way of examples, the state-of-the-art related to quality assurance, as well as delve into the areas that require more work - especially related to in-situ and ex-situ nondestructive evaluation methods. Relative to the state-of-the-art, examples related to multiple processes will be given, around a common class of materials (titanium-based alloys). We will demonstrate process modeling, microstructural modeling, and full modeling of properties. It is necessary to characterize the materials state at scale, and new techniques will be discussed. Lastly, the possible NDE methods for in-situ and ex-situ techniques will be presented.