The Plutonium, Uranium, Reduction, Extraction Process (PUREX) is the de facto approach for post-irradiation separations of plutonium and uranium. While this process has been in place for 70 years, the underpinning chemistry that controls PUREX is diabolically complicated and only recently have approaches been developed that can provide the near-molecular resolution necessary to understand process dynamics. This presentation will focus on recent developments in understanding the PUREX process, how this new understanding can explain undesirable phenomena like interfacial precipitates (CRUDs) and liquid third phase formation, and the benefits of new technologies that are not centered on PUREX chemistry. These new technologies include online monitoring, monoamide extractants and mixed actinide recovery approaches which could efficiently support a fast reactor fuel cycle. The presentation will be presented in a way to hopefully answer the question, “PUREX has been in use for roughly 70 years, why are chemists still working on this process?”.