Over the past several years, great strides have been made in the fundamental understanding of the processes that occur in an operating lead (Pb) battery. Using modern analytical techniques, such as high-energy X-rays at Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source and scanning laser mass spectrometry at RSR Technologies, more detailed aspects of Pb battery processes are being uncovered. Although the Pb battery is currently the largest application of Pb in the world today, other technologies are beginning to take advantage of the unique properties of Pb. New battery types, such as lithium-lead sulfide, and solar cells and thermoelectric devices based on lead iodide perovskite structures, are emerging as potentially important technologies. These applications represent new opportunities for Pb in the economy and will motivate the Pb industry’s need to foster continuous improvement activities leading to sustainability.