Refractory linings in primary, secondary lead and zinc furnaces like QSL reactor, KIVCET furnace, Top Submerged Lance Technology (Outotec Ausmelt/IsasmelterTM), TBRC/Kaldo furnaces, SKS – Technology, Side Blowing Furnaces, reverberatory and short rotary furnaces, New Jersey Process, as well as, WAELZ kiln are exposed to several stresses rather complex in their interaction. In the present work the main wear parameters, such as corrosion by slag, high sulfur, soda and iron oxide supply as well as reduction, metal/sulfide infiltration and hydration, are briefly introduced and discussed. The extraordinarily high SiO2 supply results in “forsterite bursting” combined with volume expansion. Increased operation temperatures in the furnace support microstructural brick degeneration. All mentioned wear phenomena develop to a severe degradation of brick microstructure and consequently to decreased lining performance. The obtained information and insights serve as a basis for improving refractory materials to provide the best solutions for RHI Magnesita’s customers.