ProgramMaster Logo
Conference Tools for 2022 AWS Professional Program
Login
Register as a New User
Help
Submit An Abstract
Propose A Symposium
Presenter/Author Tools
Organizer/Editor Tools
About this Abstract
Meeting 2022 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2022 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title Investigation of Fe-10 wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Induced Cracking Susceptibility using the Gapped Bead on Plate (GBOP) Test
Author(s) Tyler Christ, Daniel Bechetti
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Tyler Christ
Abstract Scope Introduction: Hydrogen effects in high-strength steel weldments have been well-studied by many industries due to their role in structural failures. When diffusion and aggregation of hydrogen occurs in steels, a phenomenon called hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) can occur. HIC can reduce fatigue performance and ductility, and the fabrication controls needed to avoid it can be very costly. The four necessary factors that govern HIC susceptibility are: (1) the amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal or heat affected zone (HAZ), (2) the amount of tensile residual stress, (3) the presence of a susceptible weld metal and/or HAZ microstructure, and (4) temperatures between 200C and -100C. Welding inherently produces high tensile residual stress (particularly in thick sections), and HIC-susceptible microstructures and service temperatures are common for high-strength steel structures. Over the last decade, the U.S. Navy has been investigating a high-strength steel welding consumable containing 10 wt.% Ni, dubbed 10Ni steel, that has demonstrated a desirable combination of high strength and good toughness. The material is primarily martensitic but contains 3-5 wt.% retained austenite. It is hypothesized that the retained austenite in the 10Ni steel weld metal may provide a sink (or trap) for hydrogen, potentially reducing the necessary preheat temperature required to mitigate HIC. The objective of this work was to conduct a series of experiments to quantify the evolution of hydrogen from 10Ni steel weld deposits and evaluate its HIC susceptibility using small-scale weldability tests. Experimental Procedure: The hot carrier gas extraction method was used to quantify diffusible hydrogen in 10Ni steel, MIL-100S-1, and two MIL-120S-1 weld deposits. All wires used were 1.2mm diameter. 10Ni steel wire was bare, while MIL-100S-1 and MIL-120S-1 wire were copper coated. Deposits fabricated using 98% Ar-2% O2 and 95% Ar-5% CO2 shielding gases were evaluated at test temperatures between 400C and 625C. The tests performed at 400C were in accordance with AWS A4.3, Addendum1, and higher temperature tests performed to release hydrogen from potential trapping sites. The second segment of testing was performing GBOP tests, in accordance with AWS B4.0, using 10Ni steel, MIL-100S-1, and MIL-120S-1 weld deposits. The filler material, metal transfer mode, preheat, and heat input were the variables of interest with test conditions repeated in triplicate. The welds were clamped for a minimum of 97 hours before being heat tinted and fractured to reveal hydrogen cracking. Heat tinted areas indicative of hydrogen damage were measured using ImageJ image processing and analysis software to determine the percent area of cracking. Weld metal chemistry and microhardness were measured on one weld per parameter set to add additional context for differences in percent cracking. Finally, empirical models from the literature for prediction of critical preheat for 0% cracking in the GBOP test were evaluated against the experimental results collected in this study and typical high strength steel preheat requirements. Results and Discussion: At an extraction temperature of 400C, 10Ni steel demonstrated diffusible hydrogen values of 1.10 mL/100g and 1.15 mL/100g when deposited using the spray metal transfer gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process using 98% Ar-2% O2 and 95% Ar-5% CO2 shielding gas, respectively. The low diffusible hydrogen contents were attributed to the fact that the electrode was both lubricant and feed aid free. During the higher temperature diffusible hydrogen tests, the average measured values increased to 1.70 mL/100g at 500C and 1.72 mL/100g at 625C. During GBOP testing of 10Ni steel, 0% cracking was achieved with spray transfer GMAW by preheating the test piece to 65.6C for a heat input of 0.984 kJ/mm and at room temperature for a heat input of 2.322 kJ/mm. The weldments testing the effect of metal transfer mode showed that pulsed GMAW had a lower average percent cracking than spray transfer GMAW under the same heat input and preheat conditions. As a comparison to 10Ni steel, weld deposits from two different heats of MIL-120S-1 and one heat of MIL-100S-1 were tested at 65.6C preheat and a heat input of 0.984 J/mm. The first heat of MIL-120S-1, which contained 7.78 mL/100g of diffusible hydrogen, demonstrated 72% cracking. The second heat of MIL-120S-1 contained 4.60 mL/100g of diffusible hydrogen and demonstrated 79% cracking. The large differences in cracking between 10Ni steel and MIL-120S require additional testing to determine if they were primarily caused by lower HIC susceptibility or the lower diffusible hydrogen content. The MIL-100S-1 wire contained 3.2 mL/100g of diffusible hydrogen and demonstrated 40% cracking. The empirical models for prediction of critical preheat for 0% cracking had poor agreement with the weld deposits evaluated in this study. The models are based on various carbon equivalence (CE) equations derived for the select chemistry ranges used during their development. To better predict the necessary preheat for current high strength steels and the 10Ni steel chemistries being tested, different CE equations were applied to the literature models. However, none of the CE equations’ chemistry ranges fully encompassed the 10Ni steel’s chemistry. The changes in the empirical models’ predicted preheats were driven by differences in CE equations used. Conclusion: In this study, 10Ni steel weld deposits were investigated to better understand their hydrogen content and susceptibility to HIC. Diffusible hydrogen testing demonstrated low diffusible hydrogen contents of bare wire 10Ni steel weld deposits. The low amount of diffusible hydrogen was attributed to the lack of hygroscopic feed aids or lubricants on the 10Ni consumable. Future work using 10Ni steel wires with feed aid will be needed as a comparison. Gapped bead on plate testing showed that 0% cracking for 10Ni steel deposits can be achieved by increases in preheat temperature and heat input. Additionally, the 10Ni deposits appeared to require a lower preheat for 0% cracking than the MIL-120S-1 and MIL-100S-1 deposits. The cracking seen during testing using MIL-120S-1 was likely convoluted by the much higher diffusible hydrogen content of those deposits. However, the MIL-100S-1 results offer more conclusive evidence of the promising behavior of 10Ni steel. The five equations investigated to predict necessary preheat and evaluate the severity of the GBOP testing showed varying results and were largely depended on the CE equation used.
Proceedings Inclusion? Undecided

OTHER PAPERS PLANNED FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM

2020 Thomas Medal Presentation: Keeping Pace with Change
Addressing Materials Challenges and Other Barriers to the Future of Additive Manufacturing
An AI-based Vision Methodology for Self-guided Seam Tracking in Gas Metal Arc Welding
An Investigation into the Effects of Stir Zone Chemistry on Fracture Toughness in Friction Stir Welded Pipeline Grade Steel
Analysis of Temperature and Velocity Fields in the GTAW Arc for Argon
Application of Polarity Switching Capacitor Discharge Welding to Aluminum Sheet Structures
Buried Arc GMAW for Single Pass Single Sided Erection Joints onboard Ships
Carbonitride Development and Heat Treatment Response of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel with Variations in Composition
Characterization of Dissimilar Materials 410 Martensite Stainless Steel and Mild Steel Component Produced by Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
Deleterious Phase Avoidance in Additively Manufactured Functional Gradients through Path Planning
Developing an Automated Defect Detection TIG Welding Robot with a future Adaptive Implementation
Development of a Temperature-Dependent Material Property Database for DH36 Steel
Droplet Temperature in GMAW
Effect of Composition on Solidification Behavior and Resultant Microstructure in Dissimilar Electron Beam Welds between Commercially Pure Iron and Nickel
Energy Balance in Gas Metal Arc Welding
Evaluating the Carbide Precipitation Behavior During Short Term Tempering and its Influence on Impact Toughness.
Evaluation of Spatter Production with Deep Learning Algorithms
Evolution of Analytical Modelling Approaches for Resistance Spot Welding: A Historical Perspective
Fatigue Properties of Dissimilar Aluminum to Steel Welds Joined by Ultrasonic Interlayered Resistance Spot Welding Process
Hardness Prediction by Incorporating Heat Transfer and Molten Pool Fluid Flow in a Multi-pass, Multi-layer Weld for Onsite Repair of CSEF Grade 91 Steel
High Speed Video (HSV) and Synchronized Data Acquisition (DAQ) to Observe Welding Process Stability
How to Accurately Monitor the Weld Penetration from Dynamic Weld Pool Serial Images using CNN-LSTM Deep Learning Model?
Hybrid Manufacturing: Combining Additive Friction Stir Deposition, Metrology, and Machining
IIW Commission I Activities on Additive Manufacturing
Impact of Beam Deflection on Porosity during Keyhole Mode Laser Welding of Aluminum Alloys
In-situ Liquid Nitrogen Cryogenic Cooling for Interpass Control in High-Duty Cycle Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Large Components for Navy Applications
Influence of Microstructure on the Mechanism of Hydrogen-assisted Cracking in Dissimilar Metal Welds for Refinery Application
Integrated Modeling of Defect Formation during Deep Penetration Laser Welding of Creep Resistant Nickel Base Alloys
Investigation of Fe-10 wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Induced Cracking Susceptibility using the Gapped Bead on Plate (GBOP) Test
Large-Scale Hybrid Manufacturing using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
Machine Learning-based Process Characterization and Efficient Adaptive Control in Robotic Arc Welding
Material Characterization of Grade 91 Steel Welds using Micro-resolution Ultrasonic Imaging System.
Mechanical Design and Development of a Five Degree-of-Freedom TIG Welding Robot
Meta-Analysis of Fatigue Properties in Additively Manufactured 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel
Micro Cross Weld Tensile Testing of Dissimilar Metal Welds using Digital Image Correlation
Micro GTAW Applied to a Battery Pack for Racing Applications
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
Optimizing Productivity of Hyper Duplex Stainless Steels Overlay while Avoiding Sigma Phase Formation
Phase Transformation Behavior of Fe-10wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal
Predicting Operation Windows for High-Frequency Induction Aluminum Tube Welding through Machine Learning
Process-Feature-Microstructure-Property Relationships for A9628 Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufactured Steel Components
Real-Time Recognition of Arc Weld Pool Using Image Segmentation Network
Role of Standards in Welding Safety
Scaling Analysis of Thermal and Mechanical Process in Friction Stir Welding
The Effects of Post-Weld Processing on Friction Stir Welded Additive Manufactured AlSi10Mg
The Influence of Boride Phase Transformations on Heat-Affected Zone Liquation Cracking Susceptibility in Laser Welded 304L Stainless Steel
The Influence of Dynamic Behaviors Characteristics of Molten Pool on the Weld Formation during the High Speed Laser Welding
The International Institute of Welding: Strategic Directions for Welding and Joining Research and Industrial Applications
Use of Low Transition Temperature Steel Alloys In Welded Overlays for High Wear Applications
Welding Investigation of Wrought FeMnAl Steel
WeldVac – A Quiet, Clean Metal Removal System

Questions about ProgramMaster? Contact programming@programmaster.org