ProgramMaster Logo
Conference Tools for 2023 AWS Professional Program
Login
Register as a New User
Help
Submit An Abstract
Propose A Symposium
Presenter/Author Tools
Organizer/Editor Tools
About this Abstract
Meeting 2023 AWS Professional Program
Symposium 2023 AWS Professional Program
Presentation Title A Fundamental Investigation into Intermetallic Formation and Growth in the Aluminum-Iron System using Resistance-based Diffusion Couples
Author(s) Michael Eff, Jerry Gould, Wei Zhang
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Michael Eff
Abstract Scope Automotive, rail, defense, aircraft, heavy manufacturing, and shipbuilding original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and suppliers alike are all being driven by the government and natural resources costs to build more fuel-efficient vehicles. By the use of lightweighting, a vehicle can reduce its weight to increase fuel efficiency and/or increase its load carrying capability. Proper application of aluminum to steel structures can reduce weight up to 25% when compared to a monolithic structure made of only steels. The largest barrier to fundamental joining of these two materials is the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the joint interface. The formation of IMC during short intense thermal cycles as commonly encountered in welding is not readily understood in literature. Researchers have reported varying intermetallic phases observed at the interface, accelerated growth rates, and conflicting reports of which phases exist and the rate of growth of the IMC. The formation and growth of intermetallic compounds in the aluminum-iron system is not well understood at short times in the solid state as traditional diffusion couple experiments are measured in hours as opposed to seconds. In this study, a new technique utilizing resistance-based heating was developed via extensive thermal modeling and experimental design to generate short time diffusion couples in aluminum to steel at temperature via the bulk resistive heating. The experiment utilizes a resistance welder to create near-isothermal temperature profiles at the iron-aluminum interface. By monitoring of the dynamic resistance and experimental validation, finite element modeling was used to simulate the temperature profiles of each resistance based-diffusion couple. The resulting interfaces were characterized using electron microscopy techniques which included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, backscatter imaging, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano-beam diffraction (NBD), and dark field imaging in the TEM. The electron microscopy was performed to determine IMC growth layer thickness, IMC morphology, and ultimately first phase formation and sequential growth order. Examination of varying couples exposed to different temperatures and times has revealed that planar growth of the IMC does not occur at short times but rather a multi-site nucleation of IMC in the aluminum matrix near the iron-aluminum interface. Discrete grain of Fe4Al13 are nucleated within the aluminum bulk material within 1-Ám of the Fe-Al interface. Along the Fe-Al interface, Fe2Al5 nucleates and grows. As the IMC layer becomes continuous, interdiffusivity is greatly reduced, limiting the nucleation of Fe4Al13 by reducing the available solute supply to the aluminum matrix shifting the mode of growth from multi-site nucleation and growth to planar growth of the IMC. Close formed kinetic equations to describe growth have been generated and the mechanisms of growth at short time have been determined and are presented in the body of the research. The experiments have successfully identified the growth mechanisms of IMC in the iron aluminum system, identified non-planar growth conditions at short time, identified Fe4Al13 as the first phase to form, and provided the basis of fundamental kinetics calculations in the iron aluminum system.
Proceedings Inclusion? Undecided

OTHER PAPERS PLANNED FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM

A Brief History of Welding Metallurgy in IIW
A Fundamental Investigation into Intermetallic Formation and Growth in the Aluminum-Iron System using Resistance-based Diffusion Couples
A New CALPHAD-based Finite Element Tool for Additive Manufacturing Simulation
Accelerating Ni-Cr Filler Metal Design with a Coupled CALPHAD and Data Analytics Approach
Additive Manufacturing and Welding of Ni-base Superalloys for Concentrated Solar Power Systems
Additive Manufacturing of Steel-aluminum Bimetallic Structures
Alloy Design and Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Materials for Olefin Furnaces
Alloy Development via Multi-wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (m-WAAM)
Application of NDE Techniques for Safer Pressure Vessels
Applications of Emerging Artificial Intelligence Tools in Additive Manufacturing
Arc and Droplet Transfer Behavior During Electrode-negative Polarity Cold Metal Transfer and Electrode-positive Pulse Gas Metal Arc Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Arc Length Behaviour and Voltage Predictions for GMAW-Sp Aluminum Procedures in the Lincoln Procedure- Handbook
Automated Vision-based Laser Weld and Braze Quality Systems
Bond Formation Mechanism of High-frequency Electric Resistance Welding Of X65 Grade Pipeline Steel by Physical Simulation
Capacitor Discharge Based Resistance Welding of Aluminum Alloy and Galvanized Steel Sheets
Carbide Precipitation during Temper Bead Welding in the HAZ of Low Alloy Steels
Challenges in Additive Manufacture of Nickel Aluminum Bronze Alloys
Characterization of Vibration Welded Wood
Charpy Reconstitution Joining Procedure: Supporting Reactor Pressure Vessel Operation Beyond 60 Years
Comparison of Constant Load and Slow Strain Rate Tensile Tests for Evaluation of Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Susceptibility in Dissimilar Metal Weld
Comparison of Crystallographic Texture Before and After Post-weld Heat Treatment of Electric Resistance Welded X65 Linepipe
Computational Design of Experiment Process-microstructure-property Optimization in Welding and Additive Manufacturing
Computational Process-Microstructure-Property Optimization for Fe-10Ni Groove Welds
Connecting X-ray Computed Tomography to Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V using Quantitative Fractography
Construction of a Unified Fatigue S-N Curve Incorporating the Effects of Residual Stress Level in Welded Joints
Correlation Between the Coarse and Fine Grain Haz Hardness of Pipeline Girth Welds
Creep Performance of Austenitic Stainless Steels Processed with Wire Arc Directed Energy Deposition
Critical Evaluation of NDE Methods and Their Effectiveness for Defect Detection in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Components
Crystallographic Texture and Microstructure of Dissimilar Steel Welds for Filler Metal Selection
Database of Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Susceptibility in Dissimilar Metal Welds
Deep Learning Based Real-time and In-situ Monitoring of Weld Penetration: Where We are and What are Needed Revolutionary Solutions?
Defect Formation Mitigation during Laser Welding of Aluminum Alloys using Beam Oscillation
Deleterious Effects of Laser Welding Nitinol without Argon Shielding Gas
Development of a Fast Analysis Solver for Welding Sequence Optimization of Ship Structures
Development of a New Technique to Assess Spot Welding Cracking of Gen3 High Strength Steel Sheets
Dissimilar Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V to Stainless Steel Under Thermal Conditions used for Glass Sealing
Do We Need a New Foundation to Use Deep Learning to Monitor Weld Penetration?
Droplet Temperature Measurements in GMAW
Effect of Additive Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AF9628 Steel
Effect of Base Metal Dilution on Microstructure and Thermal Stability in Anviloy Wire-H13 Clads
Effect of Martensite-Austenite Morphology on Charpy Toughness of Cold-wire Tandem Submerged-arc Welded X70 Steel
Effect of Preheating Temperatures on Microstructure of L-DED Grade 91
Effect of Retained δ-ferrite on the Nucleation of Laves Phase during Artificial Aging in Grade P92 Steel Welds
Effect of the Notching Method on Charpy V-notch Impact Energy Outcomes
Effect of Wire Preheat and Feed Rate in X80 Steel Laser Welds
Effects of Deposition Sequence on Microstructural Evolution in Additively Manufactured Cu-Cr-Nb Alloy / Superalloy Bimetallic Structures
Energy Distribution and Effects on Weld and Defect Formation during Beam Oscillation Laser Welding of a Nickel Alloy
Erection Stage Longi Welding Robot System in Shipbuilding
Evaluation of Inoculated High Strength Aluminum Wire 6061 for GMA DED
Feasibility of LP-DED and L-PBF Processes in the Repair of GTD 111 Turbine Blades using RenÚ 65 Powder
Fluidity of Aluminum Welding Wires
Friction Stir Welding of Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) and High Hardness Armor (HHA) Steels
From Frustrating to Flawless: Mastering Class A Aluminum Resistance Welding
General Linear Models in Additive Manufacturing: Interpretability and Prediction of Aggregated Ti-6Al-4V Fatigue Data
General Thermomechanical Model of FSW Based on a Characteristic Temperature for Deformation and Heat Transfer
Geometrical Feature Development for Multi-Process DED of Aerospace Structures using Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS)
High Ductility Brazes of Nickel-superalloys Using a Multi Principal Element Alloy Filler
Hot Wire Semi-auto Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) for Shipbuilding Applications
Identifying Deposit Profile for Gas Metal Arc Directed Energy Deposition
Industrialization Challenges in Welding and Large Scale Metal Fabrication
Influence of Alloy Composition and Nitride Formation on Delta Phase Precipitation in Additively Manufactured Inconel« 625
Influence of Hydrogen Shielding Gas Additions on Base Metal Dilution, Bead Shape and Wall Buildability in Fe-10Ni Gas Metal Arc DED
Influence of Welding Parameters on Weld Reinforcement in Tandem Submerged Arc Welding
Inoculated High Strength High Strength Aluminum Wire Feedstocks for Welding and DED
Integrating a Novel Approach to Advanced Materials during Resistance Spot Welding for the Automotive Industry
Investigation of Defects Process Map in Friction Stir Welding
Investigation of Fe-10 wt.% Ni Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Induced Cracking Susceptibility using the Gapped Bead on Plate (GBOP) Test
Investigation of Intermetallic Phase Formation during RSW of Advanced Automotive Steels and Aluminum Alloys
Isothermal Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel to Ni-based Alloys Dissimilar Joints
Laser Beam Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) of an Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu Soft Magnetic Alloy
Laser Beam Welding of Wrought and Additively Manufactured Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr Alloys
Laser Welding of Al-Cu Interconnects for E-Mobility Applications: Effect of Beam Oscillation on Metal Mixing, Microstructure, and Mechanical Property
Linear Solid State Welding w/ NO Fusion Line. Fine Grained Base to Base Using 95% Less Energy
Machine Learning for GMAW Weld Quality
Machine Learning for Predicting Weld Quality and Properties in Resistance Spot Welding Process
Mapping of a Resistance Spot Weld Properties onto a Space Defined by Base Material Attributes
Mechanizing Self Shielded Flux Core Wire to Achieve Robust Toughness on Girth Welds in Pipeline Construction
Metallurgical Characterization of Rotary Inertia Friction Welded Dissimilar 422 Martensitic Stainless Steel to 4140 Low Alloy Steel Piston Joints
Methodology Development of Ultra-high Temperature Mechanical Performance of Additively Manufactured Refractory Alloys
Microstructural Heterogeneities in Electron Beam Additively Manufactured Haynes 282
Monitoring Torch Position and Weld Quality with Reversed Electrode Image during GTAW Process
Monitoring Weld Penetration using a Deep Learning Model Pre-trained from Filtered Current
My 40 Years as a Welding Engineer in the Oil and Gas Industry
Next Generation Double Electrode GMAW Processes for Precision Fillet Welding
Nickel Aluminum Bronze Weld Metal Microstructures in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Cryogenic Cooling
Nondestructive Characterization of Grade 92 Steel Weld Microstructures using, Micro-resolution Ultrasonic Imaging System.
Numerical Modeling of Arc Plasma and Shielding Gas Flows in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Tall Walls
Numerical Modeling of Resistance Spot Welding Processes and Liquid Metal Embrittlement Cracking
Numerical Modelling of Temperature and Velocity of WC-Co-Cr Particles in the HVOF Process using DJ2700 Gun and Hydrogen as a Fuel
Online Quality Monitoring Method in Gas Metal Arc Welding Based on Vision Camera and Laser Vision Sensor
Open-source Numerical Modeling of Solidification Cracking Susceptibility: Application to Refractory Alloy Systems
Optimization and Characterization of FSpJ for Al Alloys and Polymeric Materials: Experimental and Numerical Investigations
OSU Faculty Overview-Metallurgy and Weldability
OSU Faculty Overview-Processes
OSU Faculty Overview - Design, Modeling and Nondestructive Evaluation
Overview of RW Projects for the Automotive Industry
Plenary Talk: Delta Ferrite and Rapidly Solidified Microstructure in Welding and Additive Manufacturing of Martensitic Steels
Practical Calculation of Cooling Rate, HAZ Width, and Thermal Features in Welding and Additive Manufacturing
Precipitation Kinetics in Additively Manufactured Alloy K-500 and Commission IV Activities
Predicting Laser Weld Variability in 304 Stainless Steel Resulting from Composition Variation
Process Advantages of Laser Hybrid Welding of Thick-walled Steel Structures of Wind Tower
Process Control of a Custom Designed Adaptive Weld Head
Reduction of Hot Cracking in Welded Overlays via Reduced Martensite Start Temperature
Robotic Path Planning for Wire Arc Additive Applications of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys
Robotizing Double-electrode GMAW by Learning from Human Welders
Shoring Up Long Lead Time Supply Chain Issues of Forgings and Castings using Advanced Manufacturing
SiC and Nickel-base Superalloy Dissimilar Joining using Multi-principal Element Alloy Fillers
Silicate-free Tandem GMAW for Shipbuilding Applications
Solidification Behavior and Microstructure Evolution in Dissimilar Electron Beam Welds between Commercially Pure Iron and Nickel
Solidification Behavior of Laser-wire Directed Energy Deposition Austenitic Stainless Steel
Standards for Laser Welding/Cutting
Stress Relaxation Cracking Susceptibility in 347H SS Welds and Their Repairs
The Ohio State University Welding Engineering Program - the First 75 Years
The Role of Diffusion Brazing Technology for the Repair of Gas Turbine Engine Components
The Role of Material Selection and Thermal Cycling on Tool Life in Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding
Thermal Faceting on the Ductility-dip Cracking Fracture Surfaces of Nickel-based Alloys and Stainless Steel – Occurrence, Characterization, and Implications for the Cracking Mechanism
Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Welding Defect-containing Boiler Water Walls
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Calculation of Stainless-steel Solidification – revisiting the WRC-1992 Diagram
Time-of-flight Imaging for Metrology in Wire-arc Additive Manufacturing
Ultrasonic Welding of Dissimilar Materials
Ultrasonically Assisted Resistance Spot Welding of Multilayer Foils in Battery Manufacturing
WE in the Power Generation Industry
Weld Vac – A Quiet, Clean Metal Removal System
Welding Engineering in the Aircraft Engine Industry
Welding in Space: Past, Present, and Future
Wobble Laser Beam Welding in Keyhole Mode
Title: Ultrasonic Assisted Soldering of Metallized Polymer Current Collectors for Li-Ion Batteries

Questions about ProgramMaster? Contact programming@programmaster.org