Since its introduction and development more than three decades ago, nanoindentation has gained widespread acceptance as a tool for measuring and mapping the mechanical properties of thin films, thin surface regions, and small volumes of material. Hardness and elastic modulus are the most routinely measured properties, but techniques have also been developed for estimating fracture toughness, yield stress, strain hardening, creep, strain rate sensitivity, and residual stress. Many of these can be determined from indentations only a few nanometers deep. After briefly reviewing the early history of its development and the crucial roles played by Professor Nix and his colleagues, this presentation will focus on new and emerging nanoindentation measurement tools and techniques. Special attention will be given to recent efforts to perform fully instrumented nanoindentation at very high strain rates in the ballistic range, and new aspects of small-scale mechanical behavior that can be gleaned from multiaxial nanoindentation testing.