In SLM techniques, processing parameters like laser power and scanning speed affects the spatial and temporal solidification condition (cooling rate and thermal gradient) and melt pool geometry. The aim of the work is to investigate and build a coherent relationship between the processing parameters and as-fabricated microstructural features. High-throughput experimentation on hundreds of specimens was carried out to rapidly identify a processing window. Within the processing window, microstructural investigation at different length scales (i.e., grains size and morphology, texture, primary dendrite arm spacing, and melt pool geometry analysis) were analyzed on different specimens. Finer grain size and dendritic spacing, more random texture, and shallower melt pool was obtained at lower energy density values. A model is proposed to explain the dependence of microstructure on the melt pool geometry and the solidification conditions. Finally, mechanical properties to these specimens were evaluated using the hardness and compression test.