In this work, additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing techniques are employed to fabricate lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes through the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method. In this study, we investigate the formulation, printability, and electrochemical characterization of anode and cathode filament based on a formulation process modified from the literature. With a composite of graphite/polylactic acid (PLA) serving as the anode and two composites of Lithium cobalt (III) oxide (LCO)/PLA and Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC)/PLA serving as cathodes, various filaments are fabricated and tested. Using varying material ratios, those filaments are studied and compared based on their printability, mechanical characteristics, and electrochemical performances. Through this study, 3D printed electrodes and separator can be assembled to form 3D printed lithium-ion batteries of complex desired shapes with optimized energy density and sufficient mechanical strength.