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Meeting 2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Metallic Materials
Sponsorship TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division
TMS: Additive Manufacturing Committee
TMS: Refractory Metals & Materials Committee
Organizer(s) Antonio J. Ramirez, Ohio State University
Jeffrey W. Sowards, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
Isabella J. Van Rooyen, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Omar Mireles, Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center
Eric A. Lass, University of Tennessee-Knoxville
Faramarz Zarandi, Raytheon Technologies
Edward D. Herderick
Matthew G. Osborne, Global Advanced Metals
Scope As the metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology evolves and is showing itself as a technically and economically viable option for actual component production, the technology boundaries are being expanded towards more challenging materials, like refractory metallic materials, both alloys and pure metals. As manufacturing involving refractory alloys has been a persistent challenge, the use of additive manufacturing for the production of complex parts presents itself as a potentially economically viable alternative, and for some key applications, AM seems to be one of the few options available. As a consequence, the exploration and development of metal additive manufacturing of alloys based on W, Mo, and Nb, among others, has attracted many researchers and organizations and this symposium would give them the opportunity to share their work, achievements, and challenges while enabling the researchers and engineers on private and government organizations involved on this technology to clearly understand the state of the art, the current limitations and the path forward to address such.

The growing interest and research activity on AM for refractory alloys has been driven in part by the growing interest in high-performance turbine engines, hypersonic technology for many defense and commercial applications, in addition to space power generation, and the need to implement nuclear propulsion for long-range space exploration. However, many other applications involve these materials, like the production of superconductive resonance cavities for particle accelerators and even quantum computing.
Refractory metals present unique inherent challenges like elevated reactivity, low ductility, and of course high melting temperatures. As a result, the printing of these materials has shown to be quite challenging. For example, W is known for having an elevated ductile-to-brittle transition temperature what makes powder-bed fusion printing of this material a cracking nightmare for the AM practitioners. Developments have been proposed using preheating to elevated temperatures to minimize cracking while printing of refractory alloys, which further enhances oxidation. Other approaches like alloy re-designing and smart thermal engineering during printing could be solutions and several researchers are working on it. Some of the cracking phenomena associated with printing are still unclear and therefore robust solutions have been elusive. Finally, the final obtained microstructures from AM, are unique in several aspects and their influence on performance has also been a matter of study. Therefore, this symposium will bring together the additive manufacturing community that has engaged in the fundamental and applied aspects associated with refractory metals printing. A large and diverse participation is expected from industry, government agencies, national laboratories, and university researchers. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

• The varied and complex cracking phenomena associated with solidification and solid-state low ductility on the different refractory alloy systems during AM;
• Alloy elements and impurities effect on refractory alloys printability;
• Alloy design for improved printability and performance of refractory alloys.
• The use of conventional and advanced phase transformation models on the design and optimization of refractory alloys better suited for different AM processes.
• Relationships between solidification structure, impurities segregation, solid-state crystallographic structure, and defect formation during additive manufacturing and the use of fundamental understanding to propose engineering solutions;
• Modeling and simulation of the printing process and phase transformations associated with AM refractory alloys;
• Specific applications or development for key components.

Abstracts Due 07/19/2021
Proceedings Plan Planned:

Additive Manufacture of Refractory Metals for Aerospace Applications
Additive Manufacturing of Refractory High Entropy Alloys
Case Studies on Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Materials
Design and Development of 3D Printable Nb-based Alloys for High Temperature Applications
Effect of Minor Titanium and Aluminum Addition on Ductility of Refractory High Entropy Alloy
Electron Beam Melting Additive Manufacturing of Pure Molybdenum
Enhancement of the Thermal Conductivity of Inconel 718 with the Addition of Tungsten
Fabrication of Pure Tungsten Using Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion
Laser Assisted Cold Spray Deposition for Niobium and Tantalum Materials
Laser Beam Directed Energy Deposition Process Optimization for Refractory High Entropy Alloys
Laser Powder-bed-fusion of Pure Tungsten for Fusion Energy Applications
LPBF Printing of Nb for the Production of 3D Resonance Cavities
Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Characteristics of Additively Manufactured C103 Niobium Alloy
Refractory Development Framework Using Computational Modeling
Refractory Metals – Some Historical Observations
Study of Melt-pool Geometry and Microstructure in Pure W by Powder-feed Directed Energy Deposition
Thermal-chemical-fluid Flow of Dissimilar Species Mixing between Titanium and Refractory Metals
Union of Mo and Cr Alloys into a Single Multi-materials Part Using Laser-powder Directed Energy Deposition

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