There are many processes used in cast shops to produce cast product and there have been reviews of the development of these processes. A full review of cast shop technology can not be tackled here but the technology progression in five key areas; inclusion removal, inclusion detection, extrusion billet and rolling slab direct chill casting and degassing technology is explored to develop key themes. These are
* there are always problems to solve and new solutions just around the corner
* old ideas can be made good and existing methods made obsolete
* Persistence pays off
* New materials, sensors, modelling and automation are significant enablers of new technology
As in the past, future developments will be driven by cost & quality but more than ever by safety and environment and most importantly by climate change. Cast shop furnaces can be switched to green or turquoise hydrogen or renewables and electric furnaces. The path to zero carbon scope 1 and 2 in cast shops is apparent but reducing Scope 3 emissions such as those associated with alloying additions in particular magnesium is less clear. Completely hands free casting is well established but not yet universally adopted. Automated furnace skimming has been developed and is expected to become the norm. The elimination of tapped bath and dross is expected within 15 years.