Porosity in metal additive manufacturing is a concern and occurs widely in many different forms and in different distinctive 3D distributions. In this regard, X-ray tomography is well suited to quantify pore morphologies, 3D distributions, and holistically quantify this porosity. It can be used to forensically analyse the mechanism behind the porosity formation and hence can be used to optimize the process parameters. Insights from X-ray tomography may extend to a better understanding of the porosity formation, as well as the effect of porosity on mechanical properties through “time-lapse” non-destructive imaging of pores in mechanical tests.
In this talk I will demonstrate a variety of examples where X-ray tomography provides insights as those described above. Finally, the challenges and limitations will be discussed particularly with regards to sample size, material, limits on X-ray penetration, image quality and post-processing of X-ray tomography data.