As material size decreases into the nano size regime, novel properties arise that are different from their molecular and bulk counterparts. Isotropic nanomaterials have properties and functionalities that do not depend on spatial orientation, while anisotropic nanomaterials have properties and functionalities that are determined by their orientation within the x, y, and z dimensions. This presentation addresses the effect of dimensionality on the optical, electronic, chemical, and physical assets of various nanomaterials and how physical and chemical relationships can be exploited to improve their applications. I will highlight recent innovations from our laboratory by featuring uniquely shaped plasmonic noble metal (Au, Ag) and/or metal oxide (Fe2O3, SiO2, TiO2) nanostructures and how their morphology and dimension affect their physico-chemical properties. Applications pertinent to sensing, sequestration, and photo-/magneto- thermal applications will be described.