Rare earth elements (REEs) are the most critical raw materials in the world, and recycling of the REEs will reduce their criticality and contribute to REE sustainability. NdFeB permanent magnets are one of the most important materials for hi-tech and clean-tech applications. However, at their end-of-life (EoL) the permanent magnets and the REEs therein are often lost during the recycling of the bulk metals. Various recycling routes have been developed in the world, but most of the technologies are effective for highly concentrated magnet scrap, which is greatly dependent on the expensive pre-dismantling processes. This paper presents various innovative metallurgical solutions to the effective REE recovery from different waste magnet sources in current industrial practice, including the ferrous scrap and shredder residues from WEEE, EoL vehicles (ELVs), and other industrial or consumer products. Recent R&D efforts in the EU will be highlighted, and the challenges and opportunities will be discussed.