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Meeting 2021 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Rare Metal Extraction & Processing
Presentation Title Understanding the Feasibility for Secondary and by Product Sources to Supply Rare Earth Metals
Author(s) Gabrielle Gaustad, Eric Williams, Alexandra Leader, Ajay Gupta, Saptarshi Das
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Gabrielle Gaustad
Abstract Scope Sustainability strategies like urban mining, industrial symbiosis, and the circular economy suggest avenues to realize new supplies of critical metals. We explore the resource and economic potential for extracting rare earth elements (REEs) from industry byproducts (e.g. coal combustion products, red mud) and secondary sources (e.g. waste electronics and light bulbs). Combining materials flow analysis and characterization data, we find that while total REE concentrations in waste and byproduct streams are mostly much lower than current REE ores, some sources are richer than ores in high value REEs (eg. scandium). The quantities of REEs in secondary sources could meet global demand even with low extraction yield rates. Considering quality and quantity of contained REEs, phosphogypsum, coal ash and red mud stand out as candidates. Processes to extract REEs from secondary sources are under development, it is not yet clear which will be profitable at scale and at least environmental impact.
Proceedings Inclusion? Planned:
Keywords Recycling and Secondary Recovery, Sustainability, Extraction and Processing


Application of Eutectic Freeze Crystallization in Recycling of Li-ion Batteries
Circular Economy for Rare Earths: What are the Different Strategies, Challenges, and Opportunities?
Developed Commercial Processes to Recover Au, Ag, Pt and Pd from E-waste.
Effect of Synthesis Method on the Electrochemical Performance of LiNixMnCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) Cathode for Li-ion Batteries: A Review
Environmental Aspects of the Electrochemical Recovery of Tellurium by Electrochemical Deposition-redox Replacement (EDRR)
Environmentally Friendly Solid Phase Extraction of Critical Materials and REE from Unconventional Sources
Experimental Determination of Liquidus Temperature and Phase Equilibria of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O Slag System Relevant to E-waste Smelting
Extraction Chromatography for Separation of Rare Earth Elements
Extraction of Platinum Group Metals from Spent Catalyst Material by a Novel Pyro-metallurgical Process
Extraction of Rare Earth Metals: The New Thermodynamic Considerations towards Process Hydrometallurgy
Extraction of Zn, Ga, Ge and In from Zinc Plant Residues
How to Prepare Future Generations for the Challenges in the Raw Materials Sector
Innovative Reactors for Recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REE)
Introductory Comments: Rare Metal Extraction & Processing
Lithium Adsorption Mechanism for Li2TiO3
Preparation of High-grade Ammonium Metatungstate (AMT) as Precursor for Industrial Tungsten Catalyst
Rare Earth Elements Extraction from Coal Waste Using Biooxidation Approach
Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Recycled Hard Disk Drive Mixed Steel and Magnet Scrap
Recovery of Valuable Metals from End-of-life Lithium-ion Battery Using Electrodialysis
Recycling of Rare Earths from Neodymium Magnets Using Focused Infrared and Solid Phase Extraction
Rethinking Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Approaches to Ensure a Sustainable Supply of High-tech and Critical Raw Materials
Scandium Extraction from Bauxite Residue Using Sulfuric Acid and a Composite Extractant-enhanced Ion-exchange Polymer Resin
Scandium: Leaching and Extraction Chemistry
Scenarios of Future Lithium Use, 2021-2040
Selective Separation of Co and Ni from REE in Recycling
Sodium Metal from Sulfate
Study of the Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Ion Adsorption Clays through Perolation Leaching Processes
Study on the Enhancement of Iron Removal in the Becher Aeration by a Novel Tubular Reactor
Study on the Production of Lithium by Aluminothermic Reduction Method
Supercritical Extraction of Neodymium from NdFeB Magnet Using Organophosphorus Ligands
The Importance of Spodumene Decrepitation on the Lithium Sulfate Extraction
The Italian National Research Council Operations within the EIT Raw Materials Framework
Tool and Workflow for Systematic Design of Reactive Extraction for Separation and Purification of Valuable Components
Understanding the Feasibility for Secondary and by Product Sources to Supply Rare Earth Metals
Uranium and Thorium Removal from Rare Earth Sulfate Solutions by Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction

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