Additive Manufacturing for Energy Applications IV: Poster Session
Sponsored by: TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, TMS: Additive Manufacturing Committee, TMS: Nuclear Materials Committee
Program Organizers: Isabella Van Rooyen, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Indrajit Charit, University of Idaho; Subhashish Meher, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Kumar Sridharan, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Xiaoyuan Lou, Purdue University; Michael Kirka, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Tuesday 5:30 PM
March 1, 2022
Room: Exhibit Hall C
Location: Anaheim Convention Center

Session Chair: Subhashish Meher, Idaho National Laboratory

J-8: Creep Resistance of Al-Ce Binary Alloys Produced by Casting and Additive Manufacturing: Jillian Stinehart1; Le Zhou1; 1Marquette University
    Al-Ce-based alloys have shown promise as next-generation lightweight high temperature aluminum alloys for energy applications. The goal of this study is to explore the creep property and creep deformation mechanisms of Al-Ce alloys. Binary Al-10Ce alloys were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and casting. Heat treatments including hot isostatic pressing were performed to reduce porosity and determine high temperature microstructural stability. The porosity, eutectic lamellae and grain structure are characterized by microtomography, optical and scanning electron microscope. The as-built alloy consisted of a much finer eutectic lamellar microstructure and showed improved room-temperature strength and ductility compared to the as-cast alloy. Creep resistance was measured in tension and compression at temperatures between 300-400C. The steady-state creep strain rate and post microstructure were determined to reveal the creep deformation mechanisms. The effect of the eutectic morphology on the creep resistance for LPBF and cast alloys will be compared and discussed.

J-10: Investigation in Multi-layer and Multi-element Alloy Wire-arc Additive Manufacturing Cladding: Nicholas Brubaker1; Soumya Mandal2; Ritesh Sachan2; Michael Maughan1; 1University of Idaho; 2Oklahoma State University
    Wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is an advancing technique for producing large structures with high build volumes and high deposition rates. It also has the potential for creating dissimilar metal layers or multi-element alloy cladding. With better understanding of the interface and mixing between dissimilar material deposits, specialized alloys can be produced to fit extreme conditions. Using WAAM, nickel-based alloy layers could be added as cladding on surfaces for next generation nuclear components with wider process applicability over methods such of explosive welding, laser cladding, and roll bonding process. This work explores two different nickel-based cladding, nickel-chromium (NiCr80) with nickel-iron (NiFe52) as a multi-layer on a mild steel substrate.

J-11: Microstructural and Mechanical Investigation of IN718 Nickel-based Superalloy Fabricated via Laser-based Additive Manufacturing (LBAM): Hassan Ghorbani1; Mohammad Eizadinia1; Hiwa Khledi2; Behnam Rasti1; 1University of Tehran; 2Sharif University
    There has been increasing interest in the use of various additive manufacturing methods of Nickel-base superalloys due to their unique applications in different industries such as aerospace and propulsive industries. This paper aims to produce IN718 by laser metal deposition. Process parameters windows were identified and optimized where fully dense samples were obtained with no surface defects. Optical and electron microscopes equipped with EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses were done to investigate microstructural features and phases analysis, respectively. Furthermore, in order to investigate the mechanical properties (as a long-term high-temperature operation) of fabricated AM IN718, the creep, tensile and hardness tests have been carried out. This paper provides the feasibility of laser-based additive manufacturing (LBAM) of IN718 Ni-based superalloy, the influence of the process parameters on microstructure, mechanical properties, and the effectiveness of various heat treatment regimens, and the quality assurance of produced specimens with Non-destructive methods.

J-12: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted SB-CoNi-10 Superalloy: Evan Raeker1; Sean Murray1; Kira Pusch1; Chris Torbet1; Tresa Pollock1; 1University of California, Santa Barbara
    The microstructure of a new, high γ’ containing Co-Ni superalloy SB-CoNi-10 was analyzed following laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. Both supersolvus and subsolvus HIP and solutioning treatments were explored that eliminated or retained the columnar microstructure after 3D-printing, respectively. The supersolvus treatments recrystallized the microstructure and resulted in an equiaxed grain structure while the subsolvus treatments maintained the columnar grain structure and developed varying γ’ morphologies based on cooling rate. The γ’ distribution of subsolvus treated specimens evolved to become bimodal during aging treatments. Mechanical testing specimens, with either their loading direction parallel to the build direction or perpendicular to the build direction, were subjected to a subsolvus HIP and solution and an aging treatment prior to testing. Preliminary results indicate a dependence of build direction relative to loading direction on the measured mechanical properties.

J-13: Printing Nano Inks and Process Control for Plasma Jet Printer: Carl Karlsson1; Kunal Mondal1; Michael McMurtrey1; 1Idaho National Laboratory
    Advanced printing technologies have accepted noteworthy development driven by their ability to revolutionize academic and industrial sectors. There are many practical applications in the areas of micro and nanofabrication. Micro- and nano-printings have found tremendous applications in the area of material synthesis/patterning, electronics, medicine and biotechnology. Here, we consider one of the advanced micro/nano printings, namely the plasma jet printing (PJP) technique, including process control and parameter optimization as well as sintering, morphology, conductivity of printed patterns. Nano inks that are printable by this advanced printing technique, such as TiO2, copper and silver inks have been explored. Problems arise during printing and their solution and optimization have also been covered. Some emerging applications of PJP including printing of thermoelectric inks and related characterizations have also been explained.

J-14: Process-property Relationship for Fabricating Complex Heat Exchanger Geometry via Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Junwon Seo1; Ziheng Wu1; Nicholas Lamprinakos1; Srujana Rao Yarasi1; Anthony Rollett1; 1Carnegie Mellon University
    Additive manufacturing of superalloys allows for a wide range of flexibility in designing highly efficient heat exchangers with a variety of potential applications such as in concentrated solar power plants. The extreme operating conditions require careful control of porosity throughout the entire geometry. However, the local accumulation of heat, which is inevitable when additively manufacturing complex geometries via laser powder bed fusion, may give rise to porosity in stress critical locations. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the process-property relationship for superalloys, which is investigated in this study by exploring a vast range of process parameters. The geometry dependent porosity distribution is investigated to find an optimal process parameter that enhances mechanical properties while maintaining a reasonable build speed. With the aid of thermal simulations, the process parameters are then optimized for many complex geometries to construct highly dense and mechanically reliable heat exchanger units.

J-15: Quantifying Equiaxed Versus Epitaxial Solidification in CMSX-4 Single Crystal Superalloy Processed by Laser Powder Bed Fusion Using Single-tracks: Runbo Jiang1; Zhongshu Ren2; Joseph Aroh1; Amir Mostafaei3; Benjamin Gould4; Tao Sun2; Anthony Rollett1; 1Carnegie Mellon University; 2University of Virginia; 3Illinois Institute of Technology; 4Argonne National Laboratory
    The primary roadblock to successfully print single crystal components using additive manufacturing is the formation of stray grains. In this work, we aim to establish a process window and develop a predictive capability for the propensity of stray grain formation during the fast solidification of single crystal CMSX-4 manufactured by fusion-based additive manufacturing. A systematic study involving solidification modeling and a theoretical analysis of stray grain formation in single crystal welds demonstrated that a reduction of stray grains can be associated with optimal laser processing and rapid epitaxial solidification. This study also utilized advanced high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with post-mortem microscopy and EBSD to provide guidance for optimizing processing parameters. It showed that, though a higher laser scanning velocity and lower power are generally helpful in the reduction of stray grains, a stable keyhole and minimal fluid velocity further mitigates stray grains in laser single tracks.

J-16; Understanding Microstructure Evolution of High Temperature Ni Alloys Across Additive Manufacturing Processes: Jonah Klemm-Toole1; Juan Gonzalez1; Luc Hagen1; Andrew Wessman2; Zhenzhen Yu1; Amy Clarke1; 1Colorado School of Mines; 2University of Arizona
    Components for power generation span from small, highly complex, with high feature resolution to large, simple shapes with low dimensional tolerances. Accordingly, a range of additive manufacturing (AM) processes from high precision laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) to high deposition rate wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) can be used to produce components. However, the microstructure evolution during deposition and post processing varies considerably between LPBF and WAAM. In this presentation, we show how the as-built microstructures and annealing responses during post build heat treatment systematically vary in LPBF and WAAM IN625 and Haynes 282. We discuss these results in the context of microstructure evolution of wrought counterparts subjected to similar heat treatments. Perspectives on how the unique attributes of each alloy and AM process can be leveraged to improve component performance are provided.

J-17: Understanding Process-structure-property Linkages in Electron Beam Melted Haynes 282: Avantika Gupta1; Sriram Vijayan1; Joerg Jinschek1; Carolin Fink1; 1The Ohio State University
     Haynes-282 is a precipitation strengthened Ni based superalloy, which finds major applications in gas turbine engines. Excellent high temperature properties and weldability makes this alloy a promising candidate to fabricate near-net shaped parts via electron beam melted powder bed fusion processes (EBM). However, the development of new qualification standards for EBM Haynes 282 requires a systematic understanding of process-structure-property (PSP) space.In this study, a high throughput framework is used to understand PSP linkages in electron beam melted Haynes-282. Scanning electron microscopy is used to evaluate variations in size/morphology of γ’ and the carbides with build height and thickness. Further, evolution of carbide type and composition with build height is investigated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Micro-hardness data is used to map the effects of microstructural variations on hardness. The quantified results are correlated to initial process parameters in EBM, to understand the microstructural evolutions and establish PSP relationships.

J-18: Understanding the Process-structure-property Correlation in Additively Manufactured IN718 Alloy: Saurabh Sharma1; Kristopher Darling2; Kiran Solanki1; 1Arizona State University; 2Army Research Laboratory
    The design complexities with advancement in technology limit operational efficiency and conventional manufacturing ability of Nickel-based superalloy 718 (IN718). Additive manufacturing (AM) can overcome these drawbacks by producing near net shape components; however, a thorough understanding of mechanical behavior at elevated temperature and different loading conditions (i.e., tension and compression) is required before its actual use. In this work, process-induced history effects on the creep behavior in an additively manufactured IN718 alloy were investigated. In particular, three different heat treatment routes were chosen to tailor the microstructure by having the specific dissolution of precipitated phases. Compression and tensile creep experiments along with advanced characterization were performed to understand the role of microstructure. Results showed that the creep properties were dependent on the nature of phases present with a tension-compression asymmetry and are comparable to wrought behavior with a proper heat treatment condition.