REWAS 2022: Energy Technologies and CO2 Management: Energy Efficiency, Decarbonization and CO2 Management
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS Light Metals Division, TMS: Energy Committee
Program Organizers: Fiseha Tesfaye, Metso Metals Oy, Åbo Akademi University; Lei Zhang, University of Alaska Fairbanks; Donna Guillen, Idaho National Laboratory; Ziqi Sun, Queensland University of Technology; Alafara Baba, University of Ilorin; Neale Neelameggham, IND LLC; Mingming Zhang, Baowu Ouyeel Co. Ltd; Dirk Verhulst, Consultant, Extractive Metallurgy and Energy Efficiency; Shafiq Alam, University of Saskatchewan; Mertol Gokelma, Izmir Institute of Technology; Camille Fleuriault, Eramet Norway; Chukwunwike Iloeje, Argonne National Laboratory; Kaka Ma, Colorado State University

Tuesday 8:00 AM
March 1, 2022
Room: 212A
Location: Anaheim Convention Center

Session Chair: Chukwunwike Iloeje, Argonne National Laboratory

8:00 AM Introductory Comments

8:05 AM  Invited
NOW ON-DEMAND ONLY - Circored Fine Ore Direct Reduction Plus DRI Smelting - Proven Technologies for the Transition towards Green Steel: Sebastian Lang1; Timo Haimi2; Max Koepf1; Roberto Valery3; 1Metso Outotec GmbH & Co KG; 2Metso Outotec Oy; 3Metso Outotec Germany GmbH - Oberursel (Taunus)
     The hydrogen based direct reduction of iron ore plus EAF is widely discussed to replace the BF-BOF route and reduce the carbon footprint of steelmaking. One alternative to shaft furnaces is Metso:Outotec’s Circored process. Fine ore as feed for fluidized bed reactors is eliminating the cost and energy intensive pelletizing. As the only direct reduction process using 100% hydrogen as reductant, Circored has already proven its functionality in an industrial scale pilot plant.Direct charging of hot DRI to a smelter would further increase the energy efficiency. Metso:Outotec’s rectangular 6-in-line smelting furnace combines a flash smelter body and Söderberg electrodes. This DRI smelting solution can replace small/medium sized BFs and produce hot metal with desired carbon content in existing steel plants with BOF-converters. The big furnace volume enables to process low grade iron ore with high gangue content and thus the use of BF-grade feed for DRI production.

8:35 AM  
Treatment of an Indigenous Lepidolite Ore for Sustainable Energy Considerations: Alafara Baba1; Daud Olaoluwa1; Kuranga Ayinla1; Abdullah Ibrahim1; Ayo Balogun1; Sadisu Girigisu1; Oluwagbemiga Adebola1; Jumoke Fasiku1; 1University of Ilorin
    Lithium with increased usage in lithium-ion batteries to power portable electronic devices and electric vehicles has resulted in its global increasing demand for energy sources. Consequently, the treatment of a Lepidolite ore was investigated for lithium extraction and purification for considerable application in energy generation through combinations of sodium carbonate roasting and water leaching techniques. Various parameters such as ore : salt ratio, roasting temperature and reaction time on the extent of total lithium extraction were studied. Experimental results showed formation of various compounds as the roasting cum water leaching process proceeded. A yield of 91.2% lithium extraction efficiency was achieved and subsequently beneficiated to produce 99.1% pure Zabuyelite (Li2CO3 : 83-1454, m.p. 720 oC). The product as characterized could be used as precursor in lithium-ion batteries.

8:55 AM  Invited
To Decarbonize Industry, We Must Decarbonize Heat: Addison Stark1; 1Clark Street Associates
    Industry is often termed “hard to decarbonize” because a vast, inhomogeneous array of processes comprise the sector. But developing new, decarbonized process heating technologies represents a single, broadly applicable pathway to eliminating a large portion of sectoral emissions—and approximately one-fifth of global carbon dioxide emissions, overall. In this talk I’ll begin with a brief review of the demand for and cost of industrial heat. Then, highlight key challenges and R&D needs in developing zero-carbon industrial heating technologies. Technologies in four pathways are discussed: (1) zero-carbon fuels, (2) zero-carbon heat sources, (3) electrification of heat, and (4) better heat management.

9:25 AM  
Benefits of a Smart Electrical Energy Management Information System and Its Impact in Your CO2 Footprint: Hector Linares1; 1Carmeuse
     The use of "smart" power meters across a distribution network on an industrial facility can generate information for product cost allocation, operational efficiency improvement, reliability metrics (predictive maintenance) and RCFA or troubleshooting. To reach all the potential benefits of the network, it needs to be designed with a modern digitalization approach, able to convert electrical power measurement signals into useful business information. This session will explore the different units that a modern power measurement device can register and how they can be extrapolated to become useful business information, for example, power factor and utility bills, demand and curtailment restrictions, THD and electrical failures. Then, it will discuss the optimal network architecture to optimize the level and amount of information collected the protocols to share that information and the security firewalls to prevent unauthorized access to the devices to close with the implications this may have in your CO2 footprint.

9:45 AM Break

10:00 AM  Invited
Energy Efficiency, Electrification, and Low-carbon Fuels & Energy Sources for Decarbonizing Materials Industry: Sachin Nimbalkar1; Chukwunwike Iloeje2; Joe Cresko3; 1Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 2Argonne National Laboratory; 3U.S. Department of Energy
    Globally, materials industry is responsible for significant amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For example, four materials are responsible for over 70% of total industrial CO2 emissions – steel, cement, chemicals, and aluminum. Under a business as usual scenario, the demand for these materials is expected to increase over the coming years. Hence, successfully decarbonizing the materials industry is critical to solving the climate crisis. This presentation will frame the emerging and transformative technologies pathways needed to achieve net-zero GHG emissions in the U.S. Materials Industry by 2050. The technology pillars discussed during this presentation will include energy efficiency, electrification, fuel switching to low-carbon fuels and access to the low-carbon energy sources. The topics covered during the webinar will be scoping in nature and will highlight the technology needs and opportunities, while maintaining and enhancing the competitiveness of U.S. industry.

10:25 AM  
Geomimicry Inspired MicroNano Concrete as Subsurface Hydraulic Barrier Materials: Learning from Shale Rocks as Best Geological Seals: Cody Massion1; Vamsi S.K. Vissa1; Yunxing Lu2; Dustin Crandall3; Andrew Bunger2; Mileva Radonjic1; 1Oklahoma State University; 2University of Pittsburgh; 3National Energy Technology Laboratory
    Wellbore cement is the primary hydraulic barrier material used in wellbore construction, with properties similar to the formation rock. It serves multiple purposes such as providing mechanical support, zonal isolation, maintaining well performance, and finally restoring sealing barriers during the wellbore abandonment. Clay rich shale rocks are phenomenal sealing materials, and often exist in extensive lateral dimensions with variable thickness and in multilayered structures. Unlike clay dominated shale that resists fracturing, Portland cement has a brittle nature and is subject to mechanical failure at downhole conditions of HTHP. Three materials are explored as additives: olivine to prevent chemical attack from CO2 rich geofluids; zeolite for its water storage and slow moisture release that can potentially prevent drying shrinkage, allow secondary cement hydration, and promote self-healing capabilities; graphene to enhanced mechanical properties. In this study we investigate the mechanism for how each of these micro-nano aggregates contributes to cement matrix performance.

10:45 AM  Invited
Radiative Cooling: Harnessing the Cold of Space as a Renewable Thermodynamic Resource: Aaswath Raman1; 1UCLA Samueli School of Engineering
    We are surrounded by thermally emitted light. The radiative heat transfer mediated by these electromagnetic waves is ubiquitous yet has largely been ignored as a means of mitigating climate change. In this talk, we will explore recent innovations in controlling room-temperature thermal radiation enabled by nanophotonic materials and metamaterials. As a case study, we will introduce our body of work on radiative cooling to the sky, a natural phenomenon that has, until recently, not been actively exploited for energy efficiency at large scales. We will describe our origination of daytime radiative cooling, where tailored photonic surfaces can exhibit ultra-high solar reflectance as well as selective infrared emission at wavelengths where the atmosphere is most transparent. Recent applications of radiative cooling to improving the thermodynamic efficiency of a range of technologies including vapor-compression cooling systems, solar cells, water technologies as well as building materials more generally will also be discussed.

11:10 AM  
Solidification of Salt Hydrate Eutectics Using Multiple Nucleation Agents: Sophia Ahmed1; Robert Mach1; Haley Jones1; Fabiola Alamo1; Patrick Shamberger1; 1Texas A&M University
    Salt hydrates are a class of phase change materials (PCMs) capable of storing thermal energy at a high volumetric energy density for a low cost (<$10 /kWhth), making them of great interest for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. However, salt hydrates are susceptible to undercooling – the occurrence of a metastable liquid below the melting point due to a lack of nucleation sites for the crystalline solid. Here, we present a study of phase-specific epitaxial nucleation agents which mitigate undercooling in zinc nitrate hexahydrate and lithium nitrate trihydrate systems, including nitrate eutectics based on these compounds. While eutectics tend to depress melting temperatures into favorable ranges, we demonstrate that the nucleation of multiple phases in systems susceptible to undercooling can increase the potential for phase segregation to occur. We demonstrate for the first time the utility of multiple nucleation agents in these systems to co-crystallize multiple crystalline phases.

11:30 AM  
The Influence of H2 and CO Atmospheres on SiO Formation: Trygve Aarnaes1; Eli Ringdalen2; Merete Tangstad1; 1Norwegian University of Science and Technology; 2SINTEF Industry
    Producing silicon with H2 would be great from an environmental viewpoint because it opens up a potentially CO2 free process. This study investigated the interplay between atmosphere and the reaction between SiC and SiO2 pellets. Process gasses containing Ar, H2 and CO were examined at 1650 °C and 1750 °C. In pure Ar the reaction was slow, and found to be limited by mass transfer. The reaction was faster in the presence of H2, and in this case it was instead slow reaction kinetics that was rate limiting. However, the effect disappeared when adding CO in conjunction with H2. Both H2 and CO produced SiC whiskers at 1650 °C, but H2 to a greater degree than CO. The whiskers reinforced the pellets, which resulted in up to 20 times higher strength for a CO and H2 containing process gas. Process gasses absent of CO resulted in weaker pellets instead.