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Meeting 2024 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Metallic Materials
Sponsorship TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division
TMS Structural Materials Division
TMS: Additive Manufacturing Committee
Organizer(s) Faramarz Zarandi, RTX Corporation
Antonio J. Ramirez, Ohio State University
Jeffrey W. Sowards, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
Omar Mireles, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Eric A. Lass, University of Tennessee-Knoxville
Matthew G. Osborne, Global Advanced Metals
Joao Pedro Oliveira, Faculdade Ciencias Tecnologias
Scope As the metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology evolves and is showing itself as a technically and economically viable option for actual component production, the technology boundaries are being expanded towards more challenging materials, like refractory metallic materials, both alloys, and pure metals. As manufacturing involving refractory alloys has been a persistent challenge, the use of additive manufacturing for the production of complex parts presents itself as a potentially economically viable alternative, and for some key applications, AM seems to be one of the few options available. As a consequence, the exploration and development of metal additive manufacturing of alloys based on W, Mo, and Nb, among others, has attracted many researchers and organizations and this symposium would allow them to share their work, achievements, and challenges while enabling the researchers and engineers to clearly understand the state of the art, the current limitations and the path forward to address such.

The growing interest and research activity on AM for refractory alloys has been driven in part by the growing interest in high-performance turbine engines, hypersonic technology for many defense and commercial applications, in addition to space power generation, and the need to implement nuclear propulsion for long-range space exploration. However, many other applications involve these materials, like the production of superconductive resonance cavities for particle accelerators and even quantum computing.
Refractory metals present unique inherent challenges like elevated reactivity, low ductility, and of course high melting temperatures. As a result, the printing of these materials has shown to be quite challenging. For example, W is known for having an elevated ductile-to-brittle transition temperature what makes powder-bed fusion printing of this material a cracking nightmare for the AM practitioners. Developments have been proposed using preheating to elevated temperatures to minimize cracking while printing of refractory alloys, which further enhances oxidation. Other approaches like alloy re-designing and smart thermal engineering during printing could be the solution and several researchers are working on it. Some of the cracking phenomena associated with printing are still unclear and therefore robust solutions have been elusive. Finally, the final obtained microstructures from AM, are unique in several aspects and their influence on performance has also been a matter of study. Therefore, this symposium will bring together the additive manufacturing community that has engaged in the fundamental and applied aspects associated with refractory metals printing. A large and diverse participation is expected from industry, government agencies, national laboratories, and university researchers. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

• The varied and complex cracking phenomena associated with solidification and solid-state low ductility on the different refractory alloy systems during AM;
• Alloy elements and impurities effect on refractory alloys printability;
• Alloy design for improved printability and performance of refractory alloys.
• The use of conventional and advanced phase transformation models on the design and optimization of refractory alloys is better suited for different AM processes.
• Relationships between solidification structure, impurities segregation, solid-state crystallographic structure, and defect formation during additive manufacturing and the use of fundamental understanding to propose engineering solutions;
• Modeling and simulation of the printing process and phase transformations associated with AM refractory alloys;
• Specific applications or development for key components.

The first symposium dedicated to this topic was successfully held in 2022, which was well-attended. The second sympoisum will be held in TMS 2023 and, from the received discussion topics, it will be even more productive than the 2022 symposium. With increasing interest in this material system and further advancement in AM technologies, it is expected that the third symposium in TMS 2024 will provide even more extensive knowledge to help overcome existing challenges.

Abstracts Due 07/15/2023
Proceedings Plan Planned:

Additive Manufacturing of Platinum-based Alloys for Industrial Ultra-high Temperature Structural Applications
Additive Manufacturing of Rhenium-modified Refractory Metals
Additive Manufacturing of Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys - From Printing to Cracking
Additively Manufactured Refractory Alloys for High Temperature Environments
An Open-Source Numerical Model for Mitigating Refractory Alloy Hot Cracking Susceptibility
Atomization and Additive Manufacturing of Refractory Alloys
Control of Toughness in Refractory Nb-Ti Powders Through Induction of Oxygen-binding Subphases
Design for Additive Manufacturing of C103 Propulsion Components for L – PBF and LP – DED
Development of FGMs from Superalloys to Refractory Alloys
Development of Molybdenum Alloys for Use with Powder Blown Laser Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Development of W-Ti-Mo Refractory Medium Entropy Alloy via Selective Laser Melting for Extreme Environment Applications
Effect of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nb
Effect of Tungsten L-PBF Feedstock Modification on Performance in Bending
Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties of L-PBF Niobium Alloy C103
Heat Treatment Optimization of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacture C103.
High-throughput Synthesis of Refractory High-entropy Alloys by Laser Metal Deposition and Structure-properties Relationships
High Absorptivity Nanotextured Powders for Metal 3D Printing
High Energy X-ray and Neutron Tomography Characterization of Additive Manufacture Refractory Metal Components with Engineered Defects
Impact of Ceramic Nanoparticles on Additive Manufacture of Refractory Metals
Implementation of Solidification Modeling Towards Tailorable Refractory Microstructures in Additive Manufacturing
In-situ Alloying of Tantalum-tungsten with Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Integrated Computational Material Engineering Approach in Additive Manufacturing of Ti/Zr/Mo/Al Light Weight Refractory Complex Concentrated Alloy
Integrated Experiment and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Densification and Cracking during Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Tungsten
Investigating High-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Additively Manufactured Refractory Alloys
Laser Additive Manufacturing of Tungsten-Rhenium Alloys
Laser Beam Directed Energy Deposition Fabrication of MoNbTaTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy via Elemental Powder Processing
Material Characterization of Bulk Feature C103 for Laser Powder Directed Energy Deposition
NASA Refractory Alloy Additive Manufacture Build Optimization (RAAMBO) Project
Nb-1Zr L-PBF In-situ Alloying and Elevated Temperature Mechanical Performance
Numerical Simulation of Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma Spheroidization of Tungsten Powder: Effects of Flow Field, Particle Trajectory and Surface Tension
Printing Complex and Stable Titanium-Niobium Geometries via Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Rapid Screening of Nb-base Alloys for Additive Manufacturing
Residual Stress Prediction and Neutron Validation for Functionally Graded High Temperature Materials of IN718 and C103
Surface Finishing, Coating, and Testing of Additive Manufactured C103, Mo, and W.
Surrogate Additive Processes of Refractory Multi-principal Element Alloys
Testing Methodology Development for Ultra-hight Temperature Refractory Alloys Made with Additive Manufacturing
Use of Materials Modeling and Direct Energy Deposition for Design of Additively Manufacturable Tantalum Alloys

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