Energy Materials 2017: Materials for Oil and Gas and AMREE Oil & Gas III: Harnessing Bulk Nanostructured Materials for Energy I
Sponsored by: Chinese Society for Metals
Program Organizers: Indranil Roy, Schlumberger; Chengjia Shang, University of Science and Technology Beijing
Monday 8:30 AM
February 27, 2017
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr
Session Chair: Indranil Roy, Schlumberger; Partha Ganguly, Baker Hughes
8:30 AM Keynote
Stabilizing Nanostructures in Metals via Interface Architectures: Ke Lu1; 1Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Strong-and-stable metals are highly desirable for a variety of technological applications in the oil and gas industry. Simply refining polycrystalline grains of metals and alloys into the nanometer scale leads to significant hardening, but diminishes their mechanical and thermal stability. The brittleness under tension and high grain coarsening tendency in nano-grained metals originate from the instability of a high density of interfaces at the nano-scale. Stabilizing interfaces in the nanostructured metals is most critical for advancement of this new material family. This talk is to review recent developments of stabilization in nanostructured metals via interface architecture. Quantity, structure, and distribution of several types of interfaces are analyzed to identify their effects on properties and performance in nanostructured metals. Perspectives on this novel and sustainable approach are discussed with respect to its future development and technological applications.
9:00 AM Invited
Scientific and Technological Foundations for Pilot Scale Production of Nanostructured Metals: Terry Lowe1; 1Colorado School of Mines
The virtues of altering microstructures via Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) have been explored in virtually every commercial alloy system. However, the processing of these alloys via industrial scale implementations of SPD remains limited. In order to systematically evolve production of ultrafine grain and nanostructured metals by SPD, a Nanostructured Metals Manufacturing Testbed (NMMT) has been established in Golden, Colorado. Machines for research scale and pilot scale implementation of Equal Channel Angular Pressing-Conform (ECAP-C) technology are operated continuously in the NMMT to systematically assess the practical limitations of the SPD processing and evolve the foundational science and manufacturing technologies. We review highlights of ongoing work for scaling processing of aluminum, copper, magnesium, titanium, and iron-based alloys. Topics important to pilot scale processing include fundamental science to control slip, twinning, and texture evolution, plus industrial issues of tooling lifetimes, lubrication schemes, minimizing galling and adhesive wear, and tolerances for tooling.
9:30 AM Invited
Bulk Nanomaterials with Superior Strength and Thermostability: Ruslan Valiev1; Ilchat Sabirov2; Maxim Murashkin3; Nariman Enikeev3; 1Laboratory for Mechanics of Bulk Nanomaterials, Saint Petersburg State University; 2IMDEA Materials Institute; 3Ufa State Aviation Technical University
Recent studies demonstrated that the processing of metallic alloys by severe plastic deformation (SPD) can result in not only strong grain refinement but also leads to different phase transformations dealing with second phase dissolution, formation of grain boundary segregations and precipitations. These nanostructural features of SPD alloys produce considerable influence on their mechanical properties. The report presents experimental data and modeling results demonstrating “positive” slope of the Hall-Petch relation when passing from micro- to nanostructured state in several metallic materials subjected to grain refinement by SPD. In the alloys with “useful” segregations and nanoparticles at grain boundaries, it is possible to achieve superstrength and ductility. The nature of ultra-high strength is associated with the difficulty of dislocation generation from grain boundaries with segregations. This new approach is used also for achieving enhanced strength in several SPD-processed commercial Al and Ti alloys as well as UFG steels with enhanced thermostability.
10:00 AM Break
10:20 AM Keynote
The Four R's to Promote Ductility of Metallic Glasses: Evan Ma1; 1Johns Hopkins University
Metallic glasses boast high strength, but their low ductility has been a major concern. Taking a structural perspective and citing selected examples, in this talk we advocate purposely enhanced structural inhomogeneities, in an otherwise compositionally uniform and single-phase amorphous alloy, to promote distributed plastic flow. Four current tactics (the 4R’s) to improve deformability are highlighted, from the standpoint of structural heterogeneities that can be tailored in the monolithic glassy state. These include the retention of highly rejuvenated glass structures, coupled with restrained propagation and even nucleation of shear bands, and possibly relocation when necessary to compositions where the internal structures are amenable to being tuned to proliferate GUMs (geometrically unfavored motifs). These strategies point the way to improvements in plasticity and toughness, and occasionally even tensile ductility with necking that is unusual for glasses at room temperature. (See our review in Mater. Today published online April 30, 2016).
10:50 AM Invited
Iron-based Amorphous Metals for Impact and Corrosion Resistance Applications: The Effect of Pressure and Current on Devitrification Kinetics: Olivia Graeve1; James Kelly2; Gauri Khanolkar3; Michael Rauls4; Andrea Hodge3; Veronica Eliasson3; 1University of California San Diego; 2Alfred University; 3University of Southern California; 4California Institute of Technology
We present the application of dynamic loading and rapid heating as controlling parameters during spark plasma sintering of an ultra-high hardness and highly corrosion resistant Fe-based amorphous metal, such that sintering temperature and time can be used as independent variables for densification. We develop in situ composites and characterize the density and microstructure. We also develop ex situ composites by adding various crystalline powders to the amorphous metal powders and explore possible effects of particle size, volume fraction, and type of crystalline phas3. From this, we propose a devitrification processing map. In situ composites (formed by devitrification) or ex situ composites (formed by addition of a reinforcement phase) can facilitate improvement in toughness of these materials. Shock response experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa. This value is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far.
The World of Water Reactive or Degradable Alloys: Oilfield, Defense, Bio-Medical and Beyond: Indranil Roy1; 1Schlumberger
Water Reactive or degradable alloys are materials systems which readily react with aqueous fluids, from oilfield brines to seawater to body fluids and beyond. These alloys corrode, thus reducing their mass at an accelerated stable rate while going into solution in the environment in which they are deployed. Often hydrogen is produced as a by-product. However if designed alloys are tailored to degrade via-grain dropping these materials can be designed to potentially eliminate hydrogen release, a detriment for usage in human/animal bodies. Bulk metallic glasses synthesized from these unique alloys offer great promise in this area. Of late, we have seen the advent of “degradable technology” and “water reactive alloys” in oilfield, especially for Multi Stage Stimulation (MSS). Here the goal is to temporarily isolate sections of a well to perform sequential stimulations or hydraulic fracturing. This has been primarily used in “Unconventional” reservoirs such as shale plays and tight gas, the majority of which are horizontal wells. In the bio-medical area, some advancements have been made in designing bio-compatible reactive alloys, however this area needs a lot more dedicated research and work. For our national defense and military, many novel applications of high strength water reactive alloys are apparent. Our presentation will encompass case studies of commercial offerings and recent developments in the areas discussed above while reflecting on future potentials to effectively harness the world of degradables.
Sensitivity Variation of Nanomaterials at Different Operating Temperature Conditions: Enobong Bassey1; Philip Sallis2; Krishnamachar Prasad2; 1Coventry University; 2Auckland University of Technology
As development of oil and gas expand into very high-pressure and high-temperature reservoirs, there is increasing interest in the development of nanomaterials to withstand these severe conditions. This paper reports on the comparison of the temperature behavior of nanomaterials used in the sensitivity analysis of hydrocarbon gases. The nanocomposite of tin dioxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were fabricated into sensor devices by the radio frequency sputtering method, and used for the characterization of the sensitivity behavior of ethanol and methanol vapor. At different concentrations of the gases, the response of the sensor devices were analyzed at operating temperatures of 150 to 350 ℃. Detailed analysis of the metal oxides thin film morphology and charge transportation of the sensor were collaborated with the response sensitivity in the target gases. Based on the behaviors of these nanomaterials, applications to oil and gas development could be adapted in residual petroleum reservoirs development.