Pioneers in Additive Manufacturing: Session I
Sponsored by: TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, TMS: Powder Materials Committee
Program Organizers: James Foley, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Paul Prichard, Kennametal Inc; Iver Anderson, Iowa State University/Ames Laboratory; David Bourell, University of Texas

Tuesday 8:30 AM
February 28, 2017
Room: 7A
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: James Foley, Los Alamos National Laboratory

8:30 AM  Invited
A History of Additive Manufacturing: David Bourell1; 1University of Texas
    The era of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) is proposed to have begun in 1987 when the first fully functional AM commercial machine appeared, the SLA-1 from 3D Systems. The author proposes two "periods" of AM development preceding this remarkable achievement. First is a precursor period from about 1950-1984, characterized by invention of fully functional AM machines that were not commercialized due to the inability of large numbers of the populace to operate desktop computers. The second period, dating back almost 150 years, is AM "Prehistory", where additive techniques were used for part manufacture without a computer. The modern era of AM from 1987 will be summarized as well to introduce the symposium on "Pioneers in Additive Manufacturing".

9:00 AM  Invited
3DP Retrospective: Do Inventors Know What They Are Doing?: Michael Cima1; 1MIT
    This talk will reflect on the perspective of 3DP research and development in the late 1980's and its relationship to what has taken place over the subsequent thirty years. Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) was originally conceived as a set of prototyping methods. The unmet need was thought to be the long time taken between product concept and product realization. Early users of the technologies rapidly changed the perspective. These users began to make parts that could not be made by any other method. Users exploited SFF as a short run production method for products that had very small demand. The SFF method had become a manufacturing method. The interplay between inventors and users over the subsequent decades has shaped the additive manufacturing methods we see today. Additive manufacturing is a great example of the interplay of inventor’s perception of a need and how users actually put an invention to use.

9:30 AM  Invited
Assent and Decline of LOM Technology: Michael Feygin1; 1Cubic Technologies, Inc.
    Michael Feygin is an entrepreneur and an engineering leader. His principal accomplishment has been founding Helisys, Inc., the third commercial company launched in the field of 3D-printing. In the late eighties Michael lunched his company based on his invention of a pioneering 3D-printing technology called LOM (Laminated Object Manufacturing). The process uses lasers and sheet materials to produce objects from computer-generated images. He has been granted five domestic and numerous international patents, including some of the basic patents in the field of Additive Manufacturing. In 1996 he took Helisys, Inc. public on NASDAQ. During its ten-year existence Helisys, Inc. sold 350 Additive Manufacturing systems to 34 countries and generated over $40,000,000 in revenues. In his presentation Mr. Feygin will recall the history of his invention and of founding Helisys, Inc. He will also analyze the reasons of LOM decline and present his vision on the future of 3D printing.

10:00 AM Break

10:20 AM  Invited
Laser Deposition of Metallic Powders: Brian Welk1; Peter Collins2; Rajarshi Banerjee3; Hamish Fraser1; 1The Ohio State University; 2Iowa State University; 3University of North Texas
    My introduction to additive manufacturing was in 1979 when employed at UTRC involving characterization of "layerglazed" Ni-base superalloys. After years of other research, I returned to additive manufacturing by purchasing the first commercial machine offered by the Optomec Company. This machine has been returned for updating on a number of occasions. This presentation will describe the trails and tribulations associated with additive manufacturing, and solutions developed during the early days of effort. In particular, our development of a combinatorial method for rapidly assessing alloy systems using samples with graded compositions produced using elemental powder blends in more than one powder hopper will be described. Examples of the use of this “metallurgical playpen” will be presented, focusing on our research in titanium alloys for, on the one hand, structural applications, and on the other, low modulus titanium for bio-medical applications.

10:50 AM  Invited
Directed Light Fabrication: A Near-Net Shape Process using Laser Assisted Metal Deposition: Dan Thoma1; 1University of Wisconsin-Madison
    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) was developed in the early 1990’s at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The original notion for the technology stemmed from solving joining issues in autogenous and dissimilar welds, where filler material was often used in the fabrication process. With the growing utilization of CAD and CNC technology, the goal was to fuse gas delivered metal powders within a focal zone of a laser beam to produce fully dense, near-net shape, 3-dimensional metal components from a computer generated solid model. Over the next decade, the technology evolved to 5-axis control, and parts from aluminum to tungsten were fabricated, including many intermetallic systems (even from elemental blends). Solidification studies indicated continuous liquid-solid interfaces with cooling rates from 100 K/s to 100,000 K/s, and mechanical properties were comparable to conventionally processed commercial product. Cost, surface finish, and component qualification issues ended the DLF process in the early 2000’s.

11:20 AM  Cancelled
Development of Laser-powder Metal Additive Manufacturing for Industry: Historical Perspective, Current and Future Applications: James Sears; 1
    Laser Additive Manufacturing is a Rapid Manufacturing technique that combines the attributes of Laser Cladding with Rapid Prototyping into a technology with capabilities of solid freeform fabrication from the millimeter to meter scale. Aircraft components (up to 500 kg) have been fabricated using a multi kilowatt scale lasers and powder. On the other hand the bed type powder systems with up to 1 kW fiber lasers are being used to produce smaller sized components (usually less than 5 kg) with unique feature attributes. These technologies offer the potential to: manufacture highly complex parts and assemblies; produce additional cost saving since no part specific hard tooling is required; to significantly reduce design-to-manufacture cycle times; and reduce part to part variability through minimal human intervention. This presentation will cover the historical developments of this technology, the current status of its use in industry and prospects for further application in the future.