Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials: Minerals
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS: Materials Characterization Committee
Program Organizers: Shadia Ikhmayies, Al Isra University; Bowen Li, Michigan Technological University; John Carpenter, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jian Li, CanmetMATERIALS; Jiann-Yang Hwang, Michigan Technological University; Sergio Monteiro, Military Institute of Engineering ; Firrao Donato, Collegio Universitario, Italy; Mingming Zhang, ArcelorMittal Global R&D; Zhiwei Peng, Central South University; Juan P. Escobedo-Diaz, UNSW Australia; Chenguang Bai, Chongqing University; Eren Kalay, METU; Ramasis Goswami, Naval Research Laboratory; Jeongguk Kim, Korea Railroad Research Institute

Wednesday 8:30 AM
March 1, 2017
Room: 31B
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: Bowen Li, Michigan Technological University; Fernanda Silva, IQ/UFRJ

8:30 AM  
The Precious Metals Resource Potentials of Nigerian Benue Trough and Schist Belts - A Review: Abraham Adeleke1; Kayode Oluwabunmi2; Daniel Okanigbe3; 1Obafemi Awolowo University; 2Prototype Engineering Development Institute (PEDI) Nigeria; 3Tshwane University of Technology (TUT)
    This paper examines the potentials of the Benue trough and the Schist belts of Nigeria as sources of precious metals. The current literature on the two geological formations and the associated mineral values were reviewed. It was reported that the lead, zinc and copper mineralization of the trough is about 25 million metric tons some quantity of silver mineralization in the middle segment of the trough. The supra-crustal, coarse grained metamorphic schist belts of the north west and south west Nigeria have been identified with proven reserves of gold in veins and placer deposits in places such as Maru, Bin Yauri and Ilesha. The reports obtained showed that Nigeria has a good potential to produce and supply gold and silver to the world market. However, this potential needs to be developed through research.

8:50 AM  
Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Pyrite Ore Deposit in Umuobom Ideato, Imo State, Nigeria: Gerald Onyedika1; Amauche Achusim1; Martin Ogwuegbu1; Christogonus Akalezi1; Goddy Onuoha1; 1Federal University of Technology, Owerri
    The elemental and mineralogical content of a typical Nigeria pyrite ore was carried out to evaluate its economic relevance and provide information to global miners and processors. This is necessitated by Nigeria’s search for alternative income as the price of crude oil falls. The instruments utilized are the SEM-EDS, XRD and ICP-OES. The result obtained shows that the ore deposit is predominantly pyrite (FeS2). Traces of other elements such as Na, K, Mg and Ca associated occur in less than 0.01 %. Si and Al were found to be 0.54 % and 0.31 % respectively. The Al and Si elements were found to exist in foam like manner as aluminum silicate mineral. The x-ray mapping showed the spatial distribution of the elements within the ore matrix.

9:10 AM  
Industrial Use of Brazilian Bentonite Modified by Mild Acid Attack: Christiano Gianesi Bastos Andrade1; Danilo Marin Fermino1; Marcos Gonzales Fernandes1; Francisco Rolando Valenzuela Diaz1; 1University of São Paulo
    Treatments with high concentration solution of inorganic acid at temperatures under boiling point are a usual method for clay minerals structure modification. For many industrial uses bentonites must be cleared of impurities. In the present paper, a sample of Brazilian bentonite from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia was modified by mild acid attack using hydrochloric acid under moderate conditions (90°C, reaction times of 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24hours in close reactor, concentration of the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 1.5 M, acid solution/clay ratio of 1g/10mL). The attacked samples were characterized by CEC, XRF, SEM, EDS and Stereomicroscopy. The purpose of these attacks is to reduce the concentration of impurities with minimal damage in clay minerals structure. The modified bentonite presented good results and tends to be a good economic and environmental alternative to manufacturing products with high added value such as polymer/clay nanocomposites, cosmetics and medicines.

9:30 AM  
Mullitization Characteristics and Sinterability of Kyanite in Ceramic Preparation: Huaguang Wang1; Bowen Li1; Mengsheng He2; Jiann-Yang Hwang1; 1Michigan Technological University; 2R&D Center of Wuhan Iron and Steel Corp. Group
    Kyanite is one of the major high-alumina minerals for producing refractory ceramics. At high temperature, kyanite can be decomposed into mullite and amorphous silica. This change is an irreversible decomposition and provides potentials for fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix. In this study, kyanite powder was compressed into a cylinder green body of ceramic and heated at 1150~1450ºC. The phase transformation of kyanite and sinterability were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the phase transformation of kyanite started at 1150ºC when rising the temperature. At 1350ºC, kyanite is completely converted into mullite and silica. The compressive strength of the ceramics reached 73.3~134.8 MPa, while the bulk density was 1.95~2.47 g/cm3. The microstructure indicated the correspondence of the compressive strength to mullitization degree of kyanite.

9:50 AM  
Ore Dressing and Technological Characterization of Palygorskite from Piauí/Brazil for Applications as Adsorbent of Heavy Metals: Fernanda Silva1; Karla Simões2; Luiz Carlos Bertolino3; Bruna Novo2; Julio Afonso1; Adriana Felix4; 1IQ/UFRJ; 2IQ-UFRJ/CETEM; 3CETEM; 4CMAR-IFRJ
    Palygorskite, (Mg,Al)5Si8O20(OH)2(OH2)4.4H2O, is a lamellar mineral with a fibrous morphology. The micropores and canals in the structure give a high specific surface and sorption capacity of various kinds of species. Guadalupe’s palygorskite (Brazil) was prepared (PAT) and characterized by XRD and XRF. PAT is composed by palygorskite, kaolinite, quartz and goethite and has 58,0, 15,17 , 4,2 and 7,6% of SiO2, Al2O3 , MgO and Fe2O3, respectively. Wet magnetic separation tests were conducted with PAT obtaining the magnetic and non-magnetic fractions (PATMAG and PATNMAG, respectively). PATNMAG was characterized by XRD and XRF and the results of the XRF indicated that the iron content in the PAT decreased 8,0% in the non-magnetic product. A new wet sieving was conducted with PATNMAG to obtain a purer fraction (-20μm) (PATNMAG201) which was characterized by XRD, XRF, CEC, Zeta potential, DTA-TG and SEM. The result showed that this mineral could be used as adsorbent.

10:10 AM Break

10:25 AM  
Temperature Dependence of the Dielectric Properties of Kaolin: Csaki Stefan1; Patrik Dobron1; Igor Stubna2; Libor Vozar2; Viera Trnovcova2; Jan Ondruska2; 1Charles University in Prague; 2Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra
    AC conductivity of kaolin (Sedlec region, Czech Republic) was investigated in a temperature range from 20 to 1100 °C at 10 selected frequencies from 500 Hz to 100 kHz. After the physically bound water is released, AC conductivity reaches its minima. The main charge carriers during dehydroxylation are OH- and H+ ions, while before and after dehydroxaltion Na+and K+ ions are the most important. A jump-like increase of the AC conductivity is observed around 950 °C, which is caused by the metakaolinite → Al-Si spinel transformation. The results of the auxiliary thermal analyses TGA, DSC, TDA reflected generally known facts about a release of the physically bound water, dehydroxylation, and metakaolinite → Al - Si spinel transformation. To avoid the temperature shifts of the processes investigated in different measurement units, the all thermal analyses were conducted with the heating rate of 5 °C/min.

10:45 AM  
Synthesis and Characterization of Sodalite and Cancrinita from Kaolin: Fernanda Silva1; Fabiano Passos2; Karoline Ferreira2; Adriana Felix3; Carla Barbato4; Karla Simões5; Francisco Garrido6; Luiz Bertolino7; Danielle Castro6; 1IQ/UFRJ ; 2EQ-UFRJ/CETEM; 3IFRJ-CMAR; 4EQ-UFRJ; 5IQ-UFRJ/CETEM; 6IQ/UFRJ; 7CETEM
    Cancrinite and sodalite are characterized by high capacity of adsorption due to its porous structure. The aim of this work is to use kaolin from Borborema-Seridó/Brazil as a source of aluminium and silicon to the hydrothermal synthesis of sodalite and cancrinite and to evaluate the best conditions to the formation of this phases and the transition between them for use as adsorbent. Therefore, kaolin was heated at 700 and 900ºC for 2h, then it was reacted with NaOH and Na2CO3 (150 to 230ºC, 30 to 270min). The most pure sodalite phase was obtained at 230ºC as well a kaolin:NaOH proportion and a NaOH:Kaolin proportion between synthesis time and NaOH amount. On the other hand, for cancrinite phase it is necessary a long time of synthesis, high kaolin:NaOH proportion and temperature of heat treatment (900ºC).

11:05 AM  
Characterization of a Sienite Rock from Tanguá/Brazil as a Source of Potassium to the Agriculture: Adriana Felix1; Thuanny Soares1; Fernanda da Silva2; Fernanda Pontes2; Carla Barbato3; Adão da Luz4; 1IFRJ; 2IQ-UFRJ; 3EQ-UFRJ; 4CETEM
    The agricultural activity in Brazil have grown in the past twenty years. Thus, the use of fertilizers increased in order to improve crop’s productivity. However, Brazilian production of fertilizers isn’t enough to provide them. Thus, it is fundamental to improve the studies of rocks to be used in agriculture as an alternative source of potassium. In this work, chemical and mineralogical characterization of a sienite rock was carried out using XRD and XRF techniques. The results showed that the rock has 7.3% of K2O. Experiments to measure potassium release were run with 0.1M citric acid as extractor. There wasn’t expressive potassium released. Therefore, in order to improve potassium releasing, the rock was heated with and without CaO. It was possible to observe that when the rock was heated without CaO the availability of potassium increased due to structural changes in the rock that were followed by XRD.

11:25 AM  
Characterization of High Performance Toothpaste Abrasive Derived from Perlite: Bo Wang1; 1Imerys
    High performance toothpaste abrasive was prepared from expanded natural perlite. Particle size distribution of the perlite toothpaste abrasive was controlled by air classification. Air classification also removed large perlite particles and physically changed perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two-dimensional and platy particles. Pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement indicated that the classified samples showed good tooth cleaning effect. Tooth abrasion decreased significantly with decreasing particle size as measured by relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive was slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion and significantly better at tooth polishing. This was attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

11:45 AM  Cancelled
Effect of Mechanical Activation on the Structural Properties of Vanadium Slag: Qingyun Huang1; Shengde Dong1; 1Chongqing University of Science and Technology
    This study investigates the effect of mechanical activation of vanadium slag as a pre-treatment step prior to sodium roasting using Na2CO3. Non-activated and activated vanadium slag was researched and compared. Also, the mechanical activation-slag was sintered at 700℃, 800℃, 900℃ and 1000℃ for 60 minutes in air atmosphere. The microstructure and phase analysis of sintered slags was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that olivine phases and spinel phases are decomposed seriously after activated by 80 minutes more than activated by 20 minutes and non-activated. And the vanadium-rich phases of sodium vanadates can be obviously observed. Most of the vanadium is enwrapped by glassy phase compounds if sintered under high temperature which lead to the decrease of the leaching rate of vanadium.

12:05 PM  
Technological Characterization of Waste from Gold Mining Dam: Fernanda Silva1; Vanessa Silva2; Zuleica Castilhos3; Fabiano Passos4; Roberto Faria1; Lillian Domingos3; 1IQ/UFRJ; 2IQ-UFRJ/CETEM; 3CETEM; 4EQ-UFRJ/CETEM
    The wastes from gold mining need to be monitored from the beginning to the mine closure. The wastes from tailings dam were characterized by XRD, XRF, elemental analysis of carbon and sulfur and ICP-OES. In RFOAT (flotation waste) were observed quartz, dolomite, pyrite, muscovite and chamosite. Already, in RCOAT (cyanidation waste), other than those described in RFOAT, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite, microcline and albite. It was observed, a higher concentration of sulphide minerals in the cyanidation waste. In relation to C and S content, to RFOAT and RCOAT, they were 2.5 and 0% and 15.4 and 0.64%, respectively, indicating the presence of sulphides and organic reagents flotation in the cyanidation. The analysis by ICP-OES indicated for RFOAT and RCOAT, Zn and Pb content (mg/kg) Zn (399) and Pb (136) and Zn (7,900) and Pb (13,000), respectively. Analysis as Zeta potential, SEM, ICP-OES and ecotoxicity are carried out.