4th International Congress on 3D Materials Science (3DMS) 2018: New Experimental and Analysis Methods I
Program Organizers: Hugh Simons, Denmark Technical University; Henning Poulsen, Denmark Technical University; David Rowenhorst, Naval Research Laboratory; Peter Voorhees, Northwestern University; Satoshi Hata, Kyushu Univ; McLean Echlin, UC Santa Barbara

Monday 9:10 AM
June 11, 2018
Room: Lille Scene
Location: Kulturværftet (Culture Yard) Conference Center

Session Chair: Jon Wright, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

9:10 AM  Invited
Advances in Neutron Imaging for Bulk Microstructure Investigations and Future Capabilities at the European Spallation Source: Robin Woracek1; Nikolay Kardjilov2; Andre Hilger2; Markus Strobl3; Anton Tremsin4; Stephen Hall; 1European Spallation Source; 2Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin; 3Paul Scherrer Institut; 4University of California at Berkeley
     The European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, will be the most powerful neutron source for materials research. Among the first eight instruments that start user operation in 2023 are the imaging beamline ODIN and the engineering diffractometer BEER. In order to unlock the tremendous potential from this long pulse neutron source for 3D material characterization, novel methods are under constant development. This presentation will outline the current and future possibilities of neutron imaging for engineering materials research at existing spallation and reactor sources. Recent scientific and methodological highlights obtained by the authors will be shown, including 3D phase mapping in rectangular TRIP steel under torsional deformation and visualization of hydrogen embrittlement and blistering in iron samples.

9:40 AM  
3D Microstructural Mapping Using Neutron Time-of-flight Transmission Imaging: Joe Kelleher1; 1Engin-X, ISIS, STFC
    Electron, X-ray and neutron diffraction are widely recognised as complementary techniques, each best suited to a different range of length scales and sample materials. Of these, EBSD is now routinely used to map crystal orientations on a 2D surface and X-ray DCT can reconstruct microstructures in samples with sub-millimetre dimensions, but so far the potential of neutrons to map larger volumes remains relatively unexplored. A particular strength of neutron-based crystal orientation determination is the ability to use time-of-flight transmission spectra to obtain orientation for a crystallite from a small number of projections, which can also reduce the need to match up the grains visible in the transmitted data to diffraction spots outside the transmitted beam. Accordingly, we present a method for 3D microstructural mapping in a coarse-grained nickel superalloy that demonstrates the advantages of neutron based approach for this type of problem.

10:00 AM Break

10:30 AM  
Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields: Morten Sales1; Markus Strobl2; Takenao Shinohara3; Anton Tremsin4; Anders Dahl5; Søren Schmidt1; 1Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark; 2Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute; 3J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 4Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley; 5Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark
     We present our successful demonstration of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) for the non-destructive measurement and reconstruction of three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions, a technique capable of extracting hitherto unmeasurable properties from bulk samples. Using a state-of-the-art polarimetric set-up for ToF neutron instrumentation at the J-PARC RADEN beamline, Japan, in combination with a newly developed reconstruction algorithm, we have measured and reconstructed the magnetic field generated by a current carrying solenoid.Furthermore, we present the current status of reconstruction techniques applicable to stronger magnetic fields such as those in a crystal with multiple magnetic domains. Such techniques utilise the ToF information in combination with a forward model to get around the issue of phase wrapping, where neutron precess by more than 180°.

10:50 AM  
Fast In Situ Nanotomography at ESRF: Julie Villanova1; Richi Kumar1; Rémi Daudin2; Pierre Lhuissier2; David Jauffres2; Christophe L. Martin2; Rémi Tucoulou1; Luc Salvo2; 1ESRF - The European Synchrotron; 2SIMAP Univ. Grenoble Alpes-CNRS
     In the framework of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) upgrade program, the new nano-analysis beamline ID16B has been recently built to accommodate several micro-analytical techniques (XRF, XANES, XRD) combined with magnified tomography. The beamline configuration offers an improved lateral resolution (50 nm) and a larger flexibility capable of in-situ experiments. In this work, we present the development of a fast in situ nanoimaging set-up[1] that allows high temperature experiments to be performed with an unprecedented combination of nanometer pixel size (<100nm) and fast acquisition (<10s). Several on-going material investigations: ceramics sintering and light alloys high temperature mechanical deformation will illustrate the capabilities of the technique. We will discuss the actual challenges and limitations of this breakthrough in materials science in situ characterization as well as future possibilities offered by the EBS upgrade program at the ESRF.[1] J. Villanova et al., Materials Today 20 (2017), 354-359.

11:10 AM  
Lensless Imaging with a Lens: Anders Pedersen1; Virginie Chamard2; Carsten Detlefs3; Henning Poulsen1; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2Institut Fresnel; 3ESRF
    Non-destructive characterization in 3D of polycrystals on all length scales is one of the grand challenges of materials science. X-rays have favorable properties, such as being able to penetrate bulk samples of relevant materials. We have earlier introduced 3DXRD/DCT and dark field microscopy that produces detailed maps of grains and domains with a resolution of 2 μm and 100 nm, respectively. Here we demonstrate a new technique capable of imaging small regions inside mm-sized bulk samples with a spatial resolution of 20 nm. To allow this we utilize coherent X-ray diffraction in combination with an objective lens. We present simulated data that shows better resolution than a standard imaging setup and is more resilient against lens manufacturing errors. We will introduce the method, show preliminary experimental results, and discuss its applications in materials science.

11:30 AM  
High Energy X-ray Diffraction at CHESS-U: Matthew Miller1; 1Cornell University
    The use of high energy x-ray diffraction (HEXD) methods, which includes 3DXRD, HEDM and DCT, has experienced unprecedented growth at high energy synchrotrons around the world. Over the past several years, HEXD at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) has been used to examine a wide spectrum of processes such as fatigue crack growth in aluminum, high rate phase transformations in steel and fatigue crack initiation in copper. CHESS is undergoing a major upgrade (CHESS-U), new experimental stations will be created. A new high energy beamline will focus specifically on capturing diffraction data during processing operations and will employ synchronous data reduction; users should expect to leave with real materials data not just x-ray images. This talk will describe the ongoing HEXD experiments and capabilities at CHESS and the attributes of the new high energy CHESS-U beamline.

11:50 AM  
Mapping Grain Morphology and Orientation by Laboratory Diffraction Contrast Tomography: Nicolas Gueninchault1; Florian Bachmann1; Hrishikesh Bale2; Kenneth Nielsen1; Jun Sun1; Christian Holzner1; Leah Lavery2; Erik Lauridsen1; 1Xnovo Technology ApS; 2Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy Inc
     Recent developments of the Laboratory Diffraction Contrast Tomography (LabDCT) technique have extended its capabilities to include full reconstruction of the 3D grain structure, including both grain morphology and crystallographic orientation. LabDCT makes use of high-resolution diffraction images acquired on a ZEISS Xradia 520 Versa X-ray microscope. The diffraction signals are based on polychromatic X-rays and acquired in a special Laue-focusing geometry that helps increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The 3D crystallographic imaging capabilities of LabDCT complements the structural data obtained by traditional absorption-based tomography and together they provide unprecedented insight into materials structure. We will present a selection of LabDCT results with particularly emphasis on its non-destructive operation. We will discuss boundary conditions of the current implementation, compare with conventional synchrotron approaches, point to the future of the technique and discuss ways in which this can be correlatively coupled to related techniques for better understanding of materials structure evolution in 3D.