Additive Manufacturing: Past, Present, and Future: Joint Keynote Session
Sponsored by: TMS: Additive Manufacturing Committee
Program Organizers: John Carpenter, Los Alamos National Laboratory; James Foley, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eric Lass, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Mark Stoudt, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Monday 2:00 PM
February 27, 2017
Room: 8
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: David Bourell, University of Texas

2:00 PM Introductory Comments

2:05 PM  Keynote
The New Metallurgy of Additive Manufacturing: Thomas Starr1; 1University of Louisville
    Humans have been processing metals for over 5000 years. Recent (relatively!) development of laser and e-beam additive manufacturing has introduced processing conditions different than those used for millennia. These include micron-scale melt volumes, extremely high cooling rates and localized remelting and reheating cycles that vary throughout the volume of a fabricated part. These add new complexity to the traditional metallurgical quest for processing-structure-property relationships. That quest has only just begun. This paper reviews research results illustrating the challenge and opportunity created by this technology. These include the challenge of creating metal structures with material properties comparable to those obtained with traditional processing and the opportunity to create new materials with unique performance characteristics. Most research has focused on the former – allowing designers to design traditional structures with traditional materials. Other research creates new materials and properties – challenging designers and design software. Both of these will be important for future use of additive manufacturing for structural systems.

2:45 PM  Keynote
Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™): Past, Present and Future: David Keicher1; John Smugeresky1; 1Sandia National Laboratories
     The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was derived from a repair process developed by Pratt and Whitney in the aerospace industry. The LENS process was the first 3D metal printing process capable of producing fully dense metal parts using a variety of engineering alloys with printed part mechanical properties comparable to similar composition wrought metals. Initial discussions will focus on the historical development of the LENS technology that was supported by Sandia National Laboratories and an industrial consortium. Further discussions will focus on successful application and qualification of the LENS technology for a variety of applications. Finally, details and results will be provided regarding recent developments and future plans to advance the state of the art of the LENS process.

3:15 PM  Keynote
Additive Manufacturing Machines from the University of Texas at Austin: Joseph Beaman1; Scott Fish1; 1University of Texas
    Starting in 1987 and continuing today, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) research team at University of Texas has developed new Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) machines. This talk will cover the technology in these machines and how they came about. This includes the first SLS machine, the first machine to make commercial SLS parts, and the first SLS machine to make structurally sound Ti and Ni-based metal parts. Today, the University of Texas has just introduced a next generation SLS machine that includes state-of-the-art process control based on multiple sensors including multiple spectra. The data from these sensors are combined with physics-based models and bayesian methods. The operation of this machine will be described.

3:45 PM Break

4:00 PM  Keynote
Location Specific Control of Solidification Microstructure across AM Alloys and Processes: Sneha Narra1; Jack Beuth1; 1Carnegie Mellon University
    Control of grain or cell size with location in fabricated components has been a long-term goal for additive manufacturing. In this talk, results are presented which build upon location-specific solidification microstructure control demonstrated by the authors for Arcam deposits of Ti64. The talk will give details regarding the spatial resolution of microstructure control for this process and alloy. The generality of the methods will be demonstrated through analogous results for AlSi10Mg deposited via the EOS laser powder bed process. Further, the methods will be applied to achieve location specific microstructure control in a target component or subcomponent of either Ti64 or AlSi10Mg.

4:30 PM  Keynote
Unraveling Out-of-equilibrium Phase and Microstructure Formation in Alloys towards Alloy Design for Additive Manufacturing: Christian Leinenbach1; Christoph Kenel1; Xiaoshuan Li1; Toni Ivas1; 1Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
     In additive manufacturing (AM) of metals the processing parameters for obtaining dense and crack-free samples have been usually obtained from a trial-and-error approach. However, the fast heating and very rapid consolidation of the material can lead to complex non-equilibrium microstructures with unwanted properties. For certain applications, novel alloys which are adapted to the special processing conditions need to be developed. This requires a deep understanding of the materials science of metal AM, which is currently widely lacking.In the recent past, we have developed e.g. a novel oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) TiAl alloy or bronze/diamond composites for selective laser melting (SLM). In this presentation, the challenges related to the beam-based additive manufacturing of such nano-structured alloys will be summarized and an overview of the alloy design strategies, including thermodynamic simulations, sophisticated rapid solidification tests combined with in situ synchrotron radiation measurements as well as SLM tests, will be presented.

5:00 PM  Keynote
The Move to Multifunctionality: Additive Manufacturing of Graded and Multimaterial Structures: Christopher Tuck1; Ricky Wildman1; Ian Ashcroft1; Richard Leach1; Richard Hague1; Adam Clare1; 1University of Nottingham
    Additive manufacturing has become a byword for enabling engineers to exploit design freedom for the development of products with ever increased performance. There are a number of burgeoning industrial uses for this technology, but what is to come next. One area of research that is gaining prominence is that of multifunctional or multimaterial AM where new processes and materials are being developed for the contemporaneous and sequential deposition of distinctly different materials to enable system level products to be printed in one AM machine. This presentation will overview recent advances in the co-deposition of electronic, structural, pharmaceutical and biological materials, from the initial development of suitable material feedstocks coupled with their inherent links to the AM process and assessment of the deposited structure. In addition, an overview of work on in/post process analyses of AM produced components from single materials will complete the circle.