Biological Materials Science: Biological Materials Science II
Sponsored by: TMS Functional Materials Division, TMS: Biomaterials Committee
Program Organizers: David Restrepo, The University of Texas at San Antonio; Steven Naleway, University of Utah; Jing Du, Pennsylvania State University; Ning Zhang, University of Alabama; Hannes Schniepp, William & Mary

Monday 2:00 PM
February 28, 2022
Room: 201B
Location: Anaheim Convention Center

Session Chair: David Restrepo, The University of Texas at San Antonio; Alexander Ossa, Universidad EAFIT

2:00 PM  Invited
Biological Blueprints Towards Next Generation Multifunctional Materials: David Kisailus1; 1University of California-Irvine
     Natural systems have evolved efficient strategies to synthesize and construct composites from a limited selection of starting materials that exhibit exceptional mechanical properties that are frequently superior to mechanical properties exhibited by many engineering materials. These biological systems have accomplished this feat by establishing controlled synthesis and hierarchical assembly of nano- to micro-scaled building blocks that are integrated into macroscale structures, while also producing materials with multi-functionality in order to provide organisms with a unique ecological advantage to ensure survival.We investigate organisms that have taken advantage of millions of years of evolutionary changes to derive structures, which are not only strong and tough, but also demonstrate the ability to articulate as well as display multifunctional features dependent on the underlying organic-inorganic components. We discuss the mechanical properties and functionality stemming from these hierarchical features, how they are formed and translation to cost-effective and environmentally friendly multifunctional engineering materials.

2:35 PM  
Diatom Frustules: Universal Building Blocks for Novel Multi-functional Materials: Hannes Schniepp1; Aaron Stapel1; 1William & Mary
    Frustules are the hierarchically structured glass skeletons of diatoms, optimized for strength and grown in a carbon-negative fashion. We grow diatoms scalably, to use their frustules for novel materials with light weight and high strength and toughness. We developed processing techniques to make the harvested frustules compatible with additive manufacturing techniques, which allows us to create materials with many levels of hierarchical organization, reaching from 50 nm to 10 cm. The obtained samples approach the structural complexity of natural hierarchical materials, enabling toughness enhancing failure mechanisms, and correspondingly, promising mechanical properties. Given their chemical inertness and high temperature stability, these materials are promising candidates for fully sustainable, multi-functional materials.

2:55 PM  
NOW ON-DEMAND ONLY - Deep Learning and Finite Element Method towards the Application of Microfracture Analysis for Prevention of Fatigue Fractures in Bones: Gerardo Presbitero1; Marco Hernandez2; Inés Hernández-Ferruzca3; José Quiroga-Arias4; Bibiana González-Pérez3; Carlos Mora-Núñez3; Eduardo Macías-Ávila1; Álvaro Gómez-Ovalle1; Christian Mendoza-Buenrostro5; 1Industrial Engineering and Development Center (CIDESI); 2Autonomous University of Nuevo León; 3Technological University of Querétaro; 4Aeronautical University in Querétaro; 5Tecnológico de Monterrey, ITESM, Centro de Innovación en Diseño y Tecnología (CIDyT)
     We work in establishing a methodology based on the observation of microfractures generated and developed by fatigue and the use of non-destructive testing towards accurate prediction procedures for the prevention of fatigue fractures. Our studies have focused mainly on studying the growth of microcracks in cortical bones. We aim to confirm this approach for the prediction and prevention of fatigue fractures proposing it applies not only to bones but to industrial and biomedical materials. The methodology establishes a concept called characteristic length, obtained according to the modality in which microfractures grow at the instance of fatigue fracture, in agreement with the Weibull equation of two parameters.Identification and analysis of microfractures by non-destructive techniques, such as X-ray Computed tomography, and studies we performed with the integration of the concept of characteristic length, will be beneficial for confirming a methodology towards the prevention of fatigue fractures in materials.

3:15 PM  Cancelled
On the Mechanics of the Tooth-stylus-radula Systems of Chitons: A Soft Conveying-belt for Efficient Force Transduction: John Connolly1; Phani Saketh Dasika1; Wen Yang2; Devis Montroni2; Robin James2; David Kisailus2; Pablo Zavattieri1; 1Purdue University; 2Univesity of California, Irvine
    Chitons are mollusks which live on hard surfaces in the sea and use ultrahard magnetite-based teeth to harvest algae from rocky substrates. Their teeth are attached to a radula, a belt-like membrane, by styli, appendages which support the tooth during the zipper-like, rasping action used for feeding. The mechanical properties of the styli and the radula, such as regionally-varied stiffness, and interaction between structural features, enable the rasping of teeth across hard surfaces of varying, unpredictable topography, with sufficient force to remove food for ingestion and flexibility to resist breakage due to overloading. In this study, the structural elements of the chiton’s feeding apparatus are characterized, and we employ computational models to define mechanical relationships describing in situ performance. The generalized findings of this work can inform design decisions in lightweight structures, soft robotics, remote sensing, and other modern mechanical fields.

3:50 PM Break

4:05 PM  
Nature’s Soft Robot: The Chiton Radula: Jung-Eun Lee1; Wen Yang1; John Connelly2; Devis Montroni1; Robin James1; Taifeng Wang1; Li Xing1; Pablo Zavattieri2; David Kisailus1; 1University of California-Irvine; 2Purdue University
    Chitons have existed for over 400 million years and have a relatively good fossil record. Their ability to survive originates, in part, from the well-developed feeding apparatus called a radula. This light weight and flexible structure integrates both soft and stiff components, similar to the bone-tendon-muscle system, including ultrahard teeth, that are used to scrape algae from intertidal rocks. Here, we will show the specific elements and their hierarchical assembly that enable the movement of this radular structure during feeding. Specifically, we describe the micro and macro-architectures that enable continuous folding and unfolding from the mouth while still supporting force transduction to rocky substrates. We will describe the mechanisms that provide protection to the chiton’s ability to feed and ensure its survival. Understanding these design features may help lead us to next generation multifunctional soft robotics that can be used in subterranean excavation, search and rescue operations and biomedical devices.

4:25 PM  
Bioinspired Materials from Extrinsically-controlled Fabrication Techniques: Steven Naleway1; Debora Lyn Porter1; Josh Fernquist1; Tony Yin1; Josh Alexander1; Max Mroz1; 1University of Utah
    Bioinspired fabrication techniques that are able to mimic the structure and properties of biological materials are of interest to a wide range of scientific and engineering fields. We propose that these bioinspired techniques can be controlled through either intrinsic (those that modify from within by altering the constituents) or extrinsic (those that apply external forces or templates) means. Through these classifications, examples of extrinsic (through energized magnetic and ultrasound external fields) freeze cast, aerogel, and FDM printed structures will be discussed with a focus on providing advanced control of the final material structure and properties. Applications in biomedical and filtration technologies will be discussed.

4:45 PM  
Interwoven Lattices Inspired by the Venus Flower Basket: Yash Mistry1; Swapnil Morankar2; Nikhilesh Chawla2; Clint Penick3; Dhruv Bhate1; 1Arizona State University; 2Purdue University; 3Kennesaw State University
    The Venus flower basket (Euplectella aspergillum) is structure composed primarily of brittle silica, arranged in a hierarchical lattice-like design. The intrinsic microstructural features can serve as inspiration for robust, multifunctional, engineered lattice structures. In this work, we used x-ray microtomography to image and understand the complex network of lattices. The lattice network can be represented as two interwoven lattices crossing each other, with diagonal struts weaving around the cylindrical geometry. The role of these microstructures on mechanical properties was quantified by fabricating samples by additive manufacturing. Cylindrical specimens were then evaluated under three loading conditions: compression, four-point bending, and torsion. The experimental results were compared with a baseline lattice design without any weaving. Results show that interwoven lattices makes the structure more compliant having higher densification strain values. The use of the hierarchical woven structure as a means of enabling high compliance and energy absorption will also be discussed.