Pan American Materials Congress: Materials for Oil and Gas Industry: Next Generation of Metallic and Non-metallic Materials Design, Manufacture and Processing
Sponsored by: Third Pan American Materials Congress Organizing Committee
Program Organizers: Lorenzo Martinez Gomez, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas UNAM; Adriana Rocha, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Wednesday 3:40 PM
March 1, 2017
Room: Marina G
Location: Marriott Marquis Hotel
Session Chair: Lorenzo Martinez Gomez, UNAM; Adriana Rocha, UFRJ
3:40 PM Introductory Comments Invited 1
Design and Thermo-mechanical Processing of Steel Grade APIX70 PSL2 for Use in Line-pipe at Oil&Gas Industry: Adriana Berlanga1; 1Ternium
This work presents the design and characterization of the X70-PSL2 steel grade plates based on comparison toughness results using different transfer bar thickness and cooling strategies.Controlled rolling and chemical composition are the principal parameters to define the best practice on the thermo-mechanical process to obtain smaller grain size and pancake structure which increases the grain boundaries,acting like barriers against crack propagation,and to reduce the MA constituents and control their distribution which can help to change the crack’s propagation mode from transgranular to intergranular and improving the shear area.The non-recrystallization temperature was increased using Nb and Ti to compensate the high finishing temperatures typically observed on the hot mill processing this material and to promote the misorientation grains;additionally,an increase in the austenitic phase stabilization range due to the addition of austenite former elements reduced Ar3 to avoid duplex-grain,both parameters were included in the graph of MFS.
Materials for Facilities Liquefied Petroleum Gas as NFPA: Diego Venegas1; 1Universidad de Concepción
One of the problems that engineering professionals who graduate from universities is the lack of knowledge of national and international regulations governing. Technical standard contains mandatory when performing minimum aspects for a particular activity (installation, design, materials). This is the case of NFPA (National Fire Protection Association), an american organization with several years of existence, which develops technical regulations fire protection, and whose excellence in the area is recognized all around the world, so that many countries adopt its standards as national, and others use them as a basis for the development of their own. Among the specialties of NFPA is developing regulations for the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in residential, commercial and industrial facilities. NFPA 54  and NFPA 58  are the rules that give general guidelines on liquefied petroleum gas.This paper makes a detailed study on recommended materials by NFPA 54 and NFPA 58 Standards.
Dynamic Transformation and Retransformation during the Simulated Plate Rolling of an X70 Pipeline Steel: Samuel Rodrigues1; Clodualdo Aranas Jr.2; Fulvio Siciliano3; John Jonas2; 1McGill University and Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão-IFMA; 2McGill University; 3Dynamic Systems Inc.
The controlled rolling of pipeline steels involves pancaking the austenite and then subjecting it to accelerated cooling. However, the formation of ferrite during rolling decreases the amount of austenite available for microstructure control. Here the formation of ferrite during rolling is simulated using a five-pass rolling schedule applied by means of torsion testing. The first and last pass temperatures were 920 and 860 °C with 15 degrees of cooling between passes. All of the rolling was carried out above the Ae3 temperature of 845 °C that applies to this steel. Interpass times of 10 and 30 seconds were employed, which corresponded to cooling rates of 1.5 and 0.5 °C/s, respectively. Samples were quenched before and after the first, third, and fifth passes in order to determine the amount of dynamic ferrite produced in a given pass. The amounts of dynamic ferrite formed and retained increased with pass number. The amounts of ferrite that retransformed increased with pass number. The simulations indicate that ferrite is unavoidably produced during plate rolling and that the microstructures present at the initiation of accelerated cooling do not consist solely of austenite.
High Temperature In-Situ X-ray Analysis of a Lean Duplex Stainless Steel: Adriana Rocha1; Andrea Pedroza1; Gabriela Pereira1; 1LNDC/COPPE/UFRJ
Duplex Steels have been used for different applications in the oil and gas industry due to their high strength and corrosion resistance characteristics. In this work, a Lean Duplex Steel (UNS S32304) has been investigated by In-Situ X-Ray Diffraction, in order to address the phase transformations occurring during high-temperature real time exposure and the formation of deleterious phases such as sigma phase. Samples were subjected to a temperature of 800°C for different intervals of time (30min, 60min and 90 min) inside a high temperature furnace attached to an x-ray diffractometer. Formation of sigma phase was observed, both in the ferrite grain boundaries and in the ferrite/austenite interface. The volume of sigma phase was measured by quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method and results varied from 11% to 17 %vol. Significant increase on sigma volume was observed and different kinetics mechanisms were investigated for the 30 and 60 minute intervals.