Frontiers in Materials Science, Engineering, and Technology: An FMD Symposium in Honor of Sungho Jin: Process-Property-Performance Correlations: Metals, Alloys and Ferroelectrics
Sponsored by: TMS Functional Materials Division, TMS: Biomaterials Committee, TMS: Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Materials Committee, TMS: Nanomaterials Committee, TMS: Thin Films and Interfaces Committee
Program Organizers: Fay Hua, Intel Corporation; Tae-Kyu Lee, Portland State University; Young-Ho Kim, Hanyang University; Roger Narayan, UNC/NCSU Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering; Choong-un Kim, University of Texas at Arlington; Nuggehalli Ravindra, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Monday 8:30 AM
February 27, 2017
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr
Session Chair: Sung Kang, IBM; Nuggehalli Ravindra, New Jersey Institute of Technology
8:30 AM Introductory Comments
8:40 AM Invited
The Grain Refinement of Martensitic Steel by Thermal Processes: John Morris1; 1University of California Berkeley
Sungho Jin's first major scientific contribution was his design of a multi-step thermal cycling treatment that produced an ultra-fine effective grain size and exceptional cryogenic toughness in an Fe-12Ni martensitic steel. While the method was spectacularly successful, the actual microstructures refinement mechanisms were unclear. It was not even clear which microstructures feature determined the effective grain size. After many years of fundamental research, the meaning of grain size in martensitic steels is now clear, as are the microstructures mechanisms that are exploited in thermal cycling treatments of the sort Sungho Jin pioneered to refine the grain size of martensitic steels. The present paper will discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steel, identify the effective grain size, and describe how appropriate thermal treatments exploit the details of the martensitic transformation to refine grain size and produce superior low-temperature properties.
9:10 AM Invited
Extreme Deformation and Failure of Materials: Marc Meyers1; Bruce Remington2; Chris Wehrenberg2; Hye-Sook Park2; T. Remington2; Eduardo Bringa3; Bimal Kad1; Eric Hahn1; Shiteng Zhao1; 1University of California San Diego; 2Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; 3CONICET- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
The use of high-amplitude pulsed lasers to probe the response of materials at pressures up to hundreds of GPa, associated shear stresses of the same magnitude, time durations of nanoseconds, and strain rates of up to 108 s-1 is revealing novel mechanisms of plastic deformation, phase transformations, and amorphization in materials. This unique experimental tool, aided by advanced diagnostics, analysis, and characterization, is allowing us to explore these new regimes. In parallel with experiments, molecular dynamics simulations provide modeling and visualization at comparable strain rates (108-109 s-1) and time durations (hundreds of picoseconds). This powerful synergy is demonstrated for representative face-centered cubic (fcc) copper, body-centered cubic (bcc) tantalum, diamond cubic silicon, and boron carbide. The ultimate tensile failure of materials is experimentally determined through spalling experiments and evaluated by molecular dynamics. Work supported by DOE/ SSAP.
9:40 AM Invited
Application of Thermodynamics to Rare Earth-based Alloy Design: Patrice Turchi1; Aurelien Perron1; Per Soderlind1; Alexander Landa1; Orlando Rios2; 1Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; 2Oak Ridge National Laboratory
An ab initio-aided approach to thermodynamic assessment of multi-component rare earth-based alloys within the CALPHAD methodology is considered to study solute effects on properties spanning from magnetism to structures, among others. Thermodynamic databases built for several classes of multi-component alloys will be presented, with a focus on alloys for hard magnet and structural applications, and we will show how this information can be used to design new alloys., with improved properties. Work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Research supported by CMI at Ames Laboratory, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office.
10:10 AM Break
Growth of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn Intermetallic Compounds on (111)-, (100)- , and Randomly-oriented Copper Films: Yu-Jin Li1; Chih Chen1; 1National Chiao Tung University
In this study, we fabricated three types of copper films on silicon substrates by electroplating. These Cu films are highly (111)-oriented nano-twinned copper film, highly (100)-oriented, and normal copper films without preferred orientation. The thickness of the copper film is 5 µm. Then we electroplate tin on those copper films, followed by aging tests by hot plates with 150°C 100°C, and 50°C. The results show that, the Cu-Sn IMCs grew relatively fast along tin grain boundary. However, we found that the growth of Cu-Sn IMCs was inhibited on (100)- and (111)-oriented copper films, and the graisn of IMCs grew large in randomly-oriented copper films. Thus, the morphology of the Cu-Sn IMCs was layer-type. Moreover, the IMC growth rate on (100)-oriented copper films are slower than (111)-oriented copper films. Possible reasons for the slow Cu-Sn IMC formation on (100) Cu will be presented.
10:45 AM Invited
Low-Temperature and Pressureless Cu-to-Cu Bonding By Electroless Nickel Plating: C. Robert Kao1; 1National Taiwan University
Thermocompression bonding, with the necessity of applying high temperature and pressure, is a popular method for high-density interconnections. However, such high temperature and pressure process could generate several issues such as warpage-induced defects and cracking of delicate thin chips. There is a clear trend toward bonding at lower temperature and pressure. A low-temperature, pressure-free Cu-to-Cu bonding process for 3D chip stacking by using electroless plating is reported. Instead of using solders, this novel bonding process leverages on the nature of autocatalytic features of electroless plating, which enables selective deposition and provides a uniform thickness of deposits, to join copper pillars on silicon dies. The electroless Ni plating was conducted under controlled pressure-driven flow conditions in a microfluidic delivery system to overcome the insufficient replenishment of the plating bath in such narrow gaps between the dies. This study successfully demonstrates the feasibility of using electroless Ni plating for 3D ICs applications.
11:15 AM Invited
Visualizing In-situ Microstructure Dependent Crack Tip Stress Distribution in IN-617 Using Nano-mechanical Raman Spectroscopy: Yang Zhang1; Vikas Tomar1; 1Purdue University
In this research, Inconel 617 (IN-617), a solid solution Ni-Cr-Mo super alloy, was analyzed for microstructure dependent in-situ stress distribution during 3-point bending tests for fracture toughness at elevated temperatures. A novel nano-mechanical Raman spectroscopy measurement platform was designed for temperature, stress, and chemistry mapping at micro to nanoscale for different temperature and load conditions. During the 3-point bending test to measure fracture toughness of micron sized samples, notch tip plastic stresses as a function of microstructure, load, and temperature, with micron scale resolution were measured. The temperature field distribution was correlated to stress distribution and residual microstructure stresses around the area of the notch tip. A new finite element method formulation that incorporated different elastic and plastic material properties from indentation experiments at different locations was validated using the experiments.
High-throughput Computational Discovery of Epitaxial Thin Films with Enhanced Ferroelectric Properties: Thomas Angsten1; Lane Martin1; Mark Asta1; 1UC Berkeley
Advances in thin-film deposition techniques have enabled growth of a wide variety of coherent ferroelectric oxide films with varying degrees of epitaxial strain that can be controlled through choice of substrate. The resulting epitaxial films can have properties differing and possibly superior to those of the bulk. Because composition, strain, and substrate orientation are all tunable parameters, a vast space of possibilities exist that is challenging to explore thoroughly by experiment. We demonstrate the use of high-throughput first-principles computations to screen for epitaxially stabilized phases with desirable ferroelectric properties. Twenty-two perovskite films on (100), (110), and (111) oriented substrates are considered over a range of misfit strain. Polarizations of the resulting stabilized phases are calculated and promising subsets of the composition/strain/orientation parameter space are identified and discussed. This work was supported by DOE-BES Grant No. EDCBEE, and by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1106400.