Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase Formation in Electronic Materials XXI: Adaptable, Reconfigurable, and Self-healing Hard Materials
Sponsored by: TMS Functional Materials Division, TMS: Alloy Phases Committee
Program Organizers: Hiroshi Nishikawa, Osaka University; Shih-kang Lin, National Cheng Kung University; Chao-hong Wang, National Chung Chung University; Chih Ming Chen, National Chung Hsing University; Jaeho Lee, Hongik University; Zhi-Quan Liu, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology; A.S.Md Abdul Haseeb, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET); Vesa Vuorinen, Aalto University; Ligang Zhang, Central South University; Sehoon Yoo, KITECH; Yu-chen Liu, National Cheng Kung University; Ting-Li Yang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University

Tuesday 8:00 AM
March 1, 2022
Room: 303A
Location: Anaheim Convention Center

Session Chair: James Pikul, University of Pennsylvania

8:00 AM  Invited
Vat Polymerization of Adaptable and Reconfigurable Three-dimensional (3D) Micro-architected Materials: Julia Greer1; Amylynn Chen1; Zane Taylor1; Xiaoxing Xia1; 1California Institute of Technology
    Creation of stimulus-responsive, adaptable materials can be achieved by incorporating architecture into material design combined with chemical synthesis within additive manufacturing platform. To harness beneficial properties of 3D nano-architected meta-materials, it is critical to assess their properties at each relevant scale while capturing overall structural complexity. We present several material systems of AM-compatible resin synthesis that induces adaptability and reconfigurability, and in some cases self-healing. Examples include a simple vat polymerization “one-pot” approach to construct polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based metallo-polyelectrolyte complexes (MPECs) architectures produced via PěSL where the material obtains >800% strain at break and ~3MPa failure strength and demonstrate mechanical compliance and self-healing, as well as environmental sensitivity. Other techniques that utilize hydrogel-infusion based AM techniques are capable of producing adaptable and reconfigurable 3D-architected materials: from electroactive polymers that expand in response to electric field to moisture-absorbent interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) that undergo liquid-to-liquid phase transitions, to electrochemically-induced morphological changes.

8:25 AM  Invited
Design of Multifunctional Architected Materials: James Guest1; 1Johns Hopkins University
    Recent advancements in manufacturing have provided unprecedented opportunities to produce materials with precisely defined architectures. This has in turn provided opportunities to achieve new combinations of material properties, including combinations of mechanical, thermal, and fluidic properties, enabling creation of multifunctional architected materials. These material structures may be static with constant properties, or dynamic with properties that change in time. To realize the potential of these capabilities, new designs and ultimately new design methods are required. The computational design tool of topology optimization is well-suited to address this new design challenge and explore the now expanded design space provided by architected materials. This talk will discuss the use of topology optimization in the design of multifunctional architected materials optimized for various combinations of properties, and discuss the integration of manufacturing considerations into the design process, ultimately leading to architected material designs that are both high performance and manufacturable.

8:50 AM  Invited
Using Solid-liquid Phase Transformation in Fusible Metals as a Self-healing Mechanism for Next Generation Metal-ion Battery Anodes: Lin Wang1; Eric Detsi1; 1University of Pennsylvania
     High-capacity alloy metal-ion battery anodes suffer from rapid failure due to the phase transformations that occur through reversible alloying reactions during charging and discharging. These phase transformations give rise to large mechanical stresses and huge volume changes that ultimately lead to battery failure after just a few charge-discharge cycles. In this talk, I will demonstrate the use of a new “self-healing” approach based on solid-liquid phase transformations in fusible alloys during charging and discharging to overcome these issues in sodium-ion and magnesium-ion battery anodes [1]. [1] L. Wang, S.S. Welborn, H. Kumar, M. Li, Z. Wang, V. Shenoy, and E. Detsi: High-Rate and Long Cycle-Life Alloy-Type Magnesium-Ion Battery Anode Enabled through (De)magnesiation-Induced Near-Room-Temperature Solid-Liquid Phase Transformation. Adv. Energy Mater. 2019, 9 (45), 1–7.

9:15 AM  Invited
Room-temperature Electrochemical Healing of Difficult-to-weld Metallic Materials: James Pikul1; 1University of Pennsylvania
    Healing structural metals has long required high temperature techniques that are energy expensive and result in cracking in many nickel and aluminum alloys. We show that we can overcome this by repairing metal at room temperature using selective electrochemical deposition. We combine theory and experiments to predict the fracture mode of healed samples and the possibility of achieving 100% recovery of tensile strength. The insights of this model allow us to demonstrate the healing of hard-to-weld alloys, aluminum 2024 and aluminum 7075, with 85% and 100% recovery of tensile strength respectively. This design strategy also allows us to demonstrate full recovery of tensile strength in the 3D printed cellular structures. This work establishes a general framework for the room-temperature electrochemical healing of a variety of structural metallic materials. It opens the possibility of repairing metals, that are otherwise difficult to weld, in structures and robots to extend their operational life and to efficiently employ resources in energy-constrained systems and remote environments.

9:40 AM Break

10:00 AM  Invited
Self-healing of Fiber-composite Laminates via In Situ Thermal Remending: Jason Patrick1; Alexander Snyder1; Zachary Phillips1; 1North Carolina State University
     Fiber-reinforced polymer composites are attractive structural materials due to their high specific strength/stiffness and excellent corrosion resistance. However, the lack of throughthickness reinforcement in laminated composites creates inherent susceptibility to fiber-matrix debonding (i.e., interlaminar delamination). This damage mode has proven difficult to detect and nearly impossible to repair via conventional methods, and remains a significant factor limiting the reliability of laminated composites in lightweight structures. Here we detail the development of an intrinsic self-healing composite based on thermally-induced dynamic bond re-association of 3D-printed polymer interlayers. In contrast to prior studies, self-repair of delamination occurs in situ and below the glass-transition temperature of the epoxy matrix, thereby maintaining elastic modulus during healing. Rapid (minute-scale)and consecutive (50+) self-healing cycles have been achieved with fracture recovery reaching 100% of the interlayer toughened composite. This latest self-healing advancement exhibits unprecedented potential for perpetual in-service repair along with material multi-functionality to meet modern application demands.

10:25 AM  Invited
Linked Metamaterials with Adaptable Stiffness: Chiara Daraio1; 1ETH Zurich
    Structured fabrics, such as woven sheets or chain mail armours, derive their properties both from the constitutive materials and their geometry. Their design can target desirable characteristics, such as high impact resistance, thermal regulation, or electrical conductivity. Once realized, however, the fabrics’ properties are usually fixed. Here we demonstrate structured fabrics with tunable bending modulus, consisting of three-dimensional particles arranged into layered chain mails. The chain mails conform to complex shapes, but when pressure is exerted at their boundaries, the particles interlock and the chain mails jam. We show that, with small external pressure, the sheets become more than 25 times stiffer than in their relaxed configuration. This dramatic increase in bending resistance arises because the interlocking particles have high tensile resistance, unlike what is found for loose granular media. We use discrete-element simulations to relate the chain mail’s micro-structure to macroscale properties and to interpret experimental measurements. We find that chain mails, consisting of different non-convex granular particles, undergo a jamming phase transition that is described by a characteristic power-law function akin to the behaviour of conventional convex media. Our work provides routes towards lightweight, tunable and adaptive fabrics, with potential applications in wearable exoskeletons, haptic architectures and reconfigurable medical supports. [Wang et al. Nature 596, 2021]

10:50 AM  
Novel Zr-based Alloy with Low Young's Modulus and Magnetic Susceptibility for Biomedical Implants: Ligang Zhang1; Renhao Xue1; Dong Wang1; Libin Liu1; 1Central South University
    The microstructure, mechanical and magnetic properties of Zr-xNb-4Sn alloys were investigated to obtain novel Zr-based alloy with low Young’s modulus and magnetic susceptibility for biomedical implants. After homogenization annealing, hot forging and solution annealing, Zr-8Nb-4Sn alloys was composed of β+α″ phase, β+α″ phase, β+ω phase, respectively. The temperature at which the α" and ω phase were transformed into β phase during the heating process is about 200℃, and the phase transformation temperature decreased with the increase of Nb element. Among all the Zr-xNb-4Sn alloys, Zr-9Nb-4Sn alloy has the lowest Young's modulus of 46.6 GPa and the low magnetic susceptibility of 1.294x10-6 cm3g-1, which has a good application prospect for biomedical applications.