Materials Engineering of Soft Magnets for Power and Energy Applications: Nanocomposite Soft Magnetic Alloys for Power Electronics, Transformers, and Inductors
Sponsored by: TMS Functional Materials Division, TMS: Energy Conversion and Storage Committee, TMS: Magnetic Materials Committee
Program Organizers: Paul Ohodnicki, National Energy Technology Laboratory; Francis Johnson, GE Global Research; Alex Leary, Carnegie Mellon University; Tanjore Jayaraman, University of Michigan; Lajos Varga, Wigner Research Center for Physics
Wednesday 8:30 AM
March 1, 2017
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr
Session Chair: Paul Ohodnicki, NETL
8:30 AM Invited
Challenges to the Commercial Acceptance of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Materials: Eric Theisen1; Jerry Allen1; Naoki Ito1; 1Metglas Inc.
Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys have been intensively researched for high efficiency electrical distribution and motor applications. While the supply of these alloys has been shifting towards a commodity market in recent years there are still barriers to the commercial acceptance that limit the demand of these materials. Often they are not drop-in replacements for the conventional silicon steel competing alloys and require significant changes in processing to be able to fabricate commercial devices. Here we highlight the current market of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys available today as well as the emerging trends of higher induction and lower loss materials. New electrical efficiency standards have pushed the conventional silicon steel materials to higher grades as well. A comparison between all of these soft magnetic materials will be provided.
9:00 AM Invited
Magnetic Material Excited by Power Electronics in Electrical Engineering: Keisuke Fujisaki1; 1Toyota Technological Institute
Magnetic material makes a much important role in electrical engineering. It can produce a large magnetic flux density through its magnetizing by external magnetic field. Until just these days, most of the supplied voltage is obtained from electrical power network which has a constant commercial frequency as 50/60 Hz with no harmonics component. Recently power electronics technology is used in the advanced society. It can realize the electrical power conversion high efficiently and in high response by means of switching operation. The supplied voltage circumstance is said to change drastically with high harmonics components and high fundamental frequency. Moreover, the trend of high frequency and high power is expected to be in progress because of the development of new material such as SiC or GaN. Therefore the magnetic material should be evaluated in power electronics excitation. Usually it makes the iron loss of the magnetic material increase.
Nanocomposite Soft Magnetic Materials for High Frequency and High Power Conversion Applications: Paul Ohodnicki1; Vladimir Keylin2; Alex Leary2; Michael McHenry2; Subhashish Bhattacharya3; 1National Energy Technology Laboratory; 2Carnegie Mellon University; 3North Carolina State University
Recent advances in wide bandgap based semiconductor devices open new opportunities for development of power electronics converter topologies which are simpler and demonstrate potential for higher power density, higher operational temperatures, and modularity. High frequency magnetic components are increasingly becoming a limiting factor in overall converter performance which creates new materials, device, and system level challenges that must be addressed for the most aggressive ranges of frequency, power, and temperature ratings now obtainable. This presentation will highlight key technical challenges for effective magnetic component design with an emphasis on high power and high frequency transformer applications. An overview of recent successes and progress will also be described for a major funded initiative seeking to leverage wide-bandgap based semiconductor switching devices in conjunction with nanocomposite soft magnetics in an advanced power electronics converter topology for combined PV and energy storage grid integration at both commercial and utility scales.
9:50 AM Break
10:05 AM Invited
Structure-Processing-Property Relationships in High Temperature Nanocomposite Soft Magnets: Matthew Willard1; Song Lan1; Bowen Dong1; Anthony Martone1; 1Case Western Reserve University
Recently, new alloys with microstructures comprised of an amorphous matrix and nanocrystalline grains have revolutionized advanced soft magnetic materials by enabling smaller hysteresis than has been achieved in traditional magnetic materials. In this presentation, we will describe our most recent results on the structure-processing-property relationships observed in Fe-based nanocomposite soft magnets designed for high temperature use. Our alloy design methodology will be discussed in the context of these materials.
Crystallization Products and Strain Annealing Effects in (FexNi1-x)80Nb4Si2B14 Metal Amorphous Nanocomposites (MANCs): Natan Aronhime1; Vladimir Keylin1; Paul Ohodnicki2; Michael McHenry1; 1Carnegie Mellon University; 2National Energy Technology Laboratory
Metal amorphous nanocomposite (MANC) soft magnetic materials are of current interest for power converters and motors. At higher frequencies, motors and converters can be reduced in size while maintaining equivalent power output. Conventional materials are inefficient at high frequency due to smaller electrical resistivities and inability to cast and roll to 10’s of μm thickness. MANC materials can exhibit higher efficiencies due to high resistivities and low anisotropies1–3.Here, Fe-Ni-based MANCs are investigated. For (FexNi1-x)80Nb4Si2B14 (25≤x≤80,) γ-FeNi is the primary crystallization product except for x=75, where α-FeNi forms. X-ray diffraction shows secondary crystallization products to be (FeNi)23B6. Mechanical properties, determined by strain annealing at 200 and 300 MPa on all compositions, show a maximum elongation of 57% at the (Fe60Ni40)80Nb4Si2B14 composition. The temperature dependence of elongation is determined for this composition as well. Finally, B-H loops are compared for both as-cast samples and strain annealed samples.
10:55 AM Cancelled
Straighten the Hysteresis Loop of Finemet Type Nanocrystalline Ribbon: Lajos Varga1; 1Wigner Research Center for Physics of Hung. Acad. Sciences
Straighten of the hysteresis loop of Finemet type nanocrystalline soft magnetic material will be presented by transversal magnetic field annealing and by continuous tensile stress annealing. The long annealing time can be reduced by applying new time –temperature diagrams for normal and magnetic field annealing. The pulling velocity of ribbon under tensile stress annealing can be increased up to 80 m/min which makes the productivity of this method competitive with the magnetic field annealing. By these two methods the effective permeability can be tailored in the range of 102-105 preserving the extreme low coercivity of soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloys below 10 A/m. The linearity of the hysteresis loop will be checked by the extent of the first derivative of the quasy-DC loop and by amplitude permeability versus flux density curve. In addition the distribution of the anisotropy field will be determined from the second derivative of the DC loop.