Materials Processing Fundamentals: Metal Extraction
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS: Process Technology and Modeling Committee
Program Organizers: Antoine Allanore, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Jonghyun Lee, Iowa State University; Guillaume Lambotte, Boston Electromet
Wednesday 2:00 PM
March 1, 2017
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr
Session Chair: Antoine Allanore, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Guillaume Lambotte, Boston Electromet
Applied Statistical Analysis on the Calcination Process in the Ferronickel Production: Fabio Soares1; Denis Shevchenko1; Alexey Levchenko1; Alexey Avdeev1; Alexander Vodin1; Vitaly Rudik1; Stanislav Kovalchuk1; 1Pronico
Ferronickel is mainly produced by the RKEF (Rotary Kiln Electric Furnace) process. The ore is extracted, crushed and dried before calcination. Rotary kilns are usually about 100 meters long and rotate to facilitate material flow. Due to this length, in addition to rotation speed, the material takes a variable time to cross the whole kiln, and thereby changing the chemical and temperature profile, making the control of calcine temperature a great challenge. However, statistical analysis are a great tool for finding interesting patterns that are of valuable help to control the kiln variables, that are very sensitive to inertia caused by rotation and changes in temperature profile. We present a study based on real data taken from a processing plant, whereby we applied data mining techniques to extract information on which variables have influence on kiln's key performance index variables, such as calcine temperature.
Kinetics of Manganese Reductive Alloying with Carbon and Silicon: Brian Jamieson1; Kenneth Coley1; 1McMaster University
Manganese reductive alloying is one novel method proposed in the pursuit of low cost production of TWIP steels. The kinetic feasibility of reducing slag based (MnO) into metallic [Mn] with carbon and silicon was studied. 25g slags with manganese oxide (MnO) concentrations up to 20wt% were reacted with metal droplets containing different carbon and silicon contents at various times. Experimental parameters such as [wt%Si], [wt%C], (wt%MnO), temperature, and droplet size were probed to identify the rate controlling reaction step. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to determine post reaction metallic chemical composition. X-Ray fluoroscopy was used to estimate area and volume parameters used in the kinetic calculations. The reaction reached equilibrium after approximately 7 minutes, and the data shows that in the case of silicon reduction that mass transport of manganese oxide in the slag is the control step.
Study for Leaching Process of Low Grade Copper Ore: Dong Ju Shin1; Sung Ho Joo1; Chang Hyun Oh1; Shun Myung Shin1; 1Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources
Copper is one of the important metals in our lives. In these days, however, the high grade of copper ore in the world is continuously exhausted. Because of this, hydro-metallurgical process is required to extract efficiently copper from low grade of copper ore. In this study, we tried to leach copper from low grade copper ore by using sulfuric acid with temperature, concentration of sulfuric acid in mole. Copper is leached above 95% in 4 mole of sulfuric acid and 333K. However, there is a still lot of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in leaching residue. So reductive leaching is carried out to dissolve remained manganese dioxide by using sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas. Consequently, above 90% of manganese dioxide is dissolved into leachate.
Predominant Areas on a Partial Pressure Diagram for Multi-Component Systems: I. Comparison Equilibrium-Line and Mass-Balanced Point Methods: H.H. Huang1; Courtney Young1; 1Montana Tech
Kellogg predominance area diagrams are normally used to present dominant solid species as a function of two gaseous species in the absence of liquid water. Originally applied to pyrometallurgical processes, such diagrams are also used to study geochemical reactions as well as ceramic and semiconductor processing. Two methods are commonly used for their construction. With the line method, predominant areas are drawn by bounding adjacent species using equilibrium constants. By comparison, the point method identifies the stable species that satisfies, not only the equilibria of the whole system, but also the mass input from each component. This method normally assumes each solid species to be independently separated, but all involving gases or liquids to be in one mixture of stable phase. For non-aqueous systems, it turns out that a free energy minimization algorithm operating under these constraints is most suitable. For multicomponent systems, these two methods can yield different diagrams due to the way how the components are treated. The line method starts from ligand component by determining the predominant areas from the member of its constituents. The species from the main component are then distributed in each isolated ligand species. The point method treats all components to be the same restricted only by the mass input. Numerical examples from commonly used processes are illustrated, including oxidation of Cu-Fe-S and Zn-Fe-S, chlorination of Ti-Fe-O, volatilization of Cu-Cl, and hot wire vapor deposition of polynuclear silicon from silane gas.
3:20 PM Break
Predominant Areas on a Partial Pressure Diagram for Multi-Component Systems: II. Applications, Gibbs Phase Rule and 3D Visualization: H.H. Huang1; Courtney Young1; 1Montana Tech
Kellogg predominance area diagrams are normally used to present dominant solid species as a function of two gaseous species. The applications of the diagrams are in many scientific areas. Examples reported in the literature are illustrated and reconstructed. These include Pyrometallurgical processes: oxidation roasting of Cu-Fe and Zn-Fe sulfides and chlorination of Ti-Fe and Rare Earth oxides, Geochemical formation: Fe-S2-O2-SiO2 system under the magmatic condition, and Ti-Fe-S2-O2 system from Metamorphic process and Ceramic and Semiconductor processes: Volatility diagram and Dry etch of Cu-Cl system, and Hot wire Chemical vapor deposition of polynuclear silicon from silane gas. Examples also include the Cu-Fe-S2(g)-O2(g) diagram side-by-side with the ternary diagram of Cu-S-Fe system. Two methods of construction are: Line method plot the boundary for each predominant species surrounded by the other, the point method identifies the number of stable species and shows them restricted by mass balanced. Both methods satisfy the Gibbs phase rule during calculation as well as viewing the plotted diagram. The calculation for a 2-dimensional diagram can be extended into another dimension such as an additional gas species or temperature. Calculated results can be imported to a 3D personal computer program. A 3D wireframe volume plot of Cu under pS2, pO2, pCO2 system from Garrels and Christ was used to verify the calculation and presentation utilizing the ParaView program. A 3D graph permits visualization of an entire system by executing rotation, clipping, slicing and even making a movie.