Energy Technologies: Poster Session
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS Light Metals Division, TMS: Energy Committee, TMS: Pyrometallurgy Committee
Program Organizers: Lei Zhang, University of Alaska Fairbanks ; Jaroslaw Drelich, Michigan Technological University; Neale Neelameggham, Ind LLC; Donna Guillen, Idaho National Laboratory; Nawshad Haque, CSIRO; Jingxi Zhu , Carnegie Mellon University; Ziqi Sun, Queensland University of Technology; Tao Wang, Nucor Steel; John Howarter, Purdue University; Fiseha Tesfaye, Åbo Akademi University

Monday 6:00 PM
February 27, 2017
Room: Hall B1
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

D-22: AC Analysis of Impedancemetric, Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Emission Control: Andrew Marshall1; Ling Cui2; Joe Fitzpatrick2; Brett Henderson2; Robert Novak3; Jaco Visser3; Victor Wang2; Leta Woo2; Jud Ready1; 1Georgia Institute of Technology; 2CoorsTek Sensors; 3Ford Motor Company
    Impedance-based or so-called impedancemetric NOx gas sensors have been demonstrated as a potential method for low-cost NOx detection in combustion applications. A design with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and two electrodes have shown promise as a good sensor candidate. Similar to automotive exhaust gas sensors, designs using YSZ are operated at higher temperatures typically greater than 550°C. A test gas with part-per-million (ppm) concentrations of NOx is used to evaluate the sensor, and an alternating (ac) signal is applied, allowing for the impedance signal to be measured. Phase angle has been determined to be a reliable measure for gas content, and may be derived from impedance. Frequency sweeps over a range of values from 1 MHz to 1Hz and constant frequency tests have been used to evaluate sensor performance. Sensor performance in terms of sensitivity and stability are related to testing parameters such as frequency and temperature.

D-23: Effect of Granularity on Pretreatment of Coke with Microwave Irradiation: Qing-hai Pang1; Zhi-jun He1; 1University of Science and Technology Liaoning
    The significant volumetric heating effect of microwave on with high polarity materials was well noticed. However, the granularity of materials in microwave field plays a very important role in the heating process, which is also dominant factor for the absorbance of microwave. Therefore, the effect of microwave irradiation on the gasification property of coke powder with different granularity was studied in this research, by which the variation in heating behavior and phase structure of coke after treatment was tested. In order to explore the mechanism of microwave irradiation on physical and chemical property of coke, the structural parameters of coke powder were calculated according to the data obtained from X-ray diffraction. It is indicated in the results that microwave irradiation on different granularity of coke may lead to different variation in phase structure and consequently the gasification property.

D-24: Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Coupling Treatment on Granularity and Microstructure of Pulverized Coal: Zhi-jun He1; Qing-hai Pang1; 1University of Science and Technology Liaoning
    The influence of microwave irradiation and ultrasonic vibration on granularity of 0.074mm pulverized coal was investigated in this research. It is indicated in the results that the granularity of coal decreased after microwave treatment, which led to the increased in specific area of pulverized coal in combustion reaction and consequently optimized the kinetic condition of combustion reaction. The specific area of pulverized coal gradually increased with the extension of irradiation time under 132W and 264W microwave powers and simultaneously the pulverization of pulverized coal was more significant under 264W microwave power. The same effect was also found in ultrasonic treatment while the granularity of pulverized coal decreased more seriously under higher powers.

D-25: Influence of Sodium on Coke Microstructure in Different Reaction Atmosphere: Zhijun He1; Wenlong Zhan1; Junhong Zhang1; Qinghai Pang1; Sen Zhang1; Chen Tian1; 1University of Science and Technology Liaoning
    Alkali metal is one of the key critical factors that determines the coke degradation. Previous studies on the influence of alkali metal on coke structure were mostly focus on the catalysis of alkali carbonates for coke gasification reaction. Besides, the difference of alkali metal and coke gasification effects on coke degradation was still not clear. Highly reactive coke developed by Nippon Steel was proved to increase the reaction efficiency and to decrease CO2 emission effectively. Therefore, conventional coke and highly reactive coke adsorbed 5 % sodium were studied in this paper. Coke degradation tests were undertaken in atmosphere of N2 and CO2. SEM, EDS and XRD were employed to analyze samples. Results showed that the degradation of conventional coke strength by sodium was stronger than highly reactive coke. The effect of CaO catalyst on the coke reactivity has been interpreted as a change in highly reactive coke microstructure and strength.

D-26: The Energy Efficiency Studies Of Aluminium Electrolysis Cells: Eda Ergun Songul1; İsmail Duman2; 1Istanbul Unıversity; 2Istanbul Technical University
    Energy efficiency is one of the major concern in primary aluminium production. The average consumption is around 12 kWh/kg. Regarding country regulations and energy policies, this value becomes an important issue; particularly perfluorocarbon (PFC) emmissions which significantly contributes to greenhouse effect. In this work, energy efficiency of aluminium electrolysis cell has been investigated through anode effect and electromagneto hydrodynamics forces. Energy loss and environmental damages calculations caused by greenhouse were also studied.