Pan American Materials Congress Plenary: Session II
Program Organizers: Marc Meyers, University of California, San Diego

Tuesday 2:00 PM
February 28, 2017
Room: Marina G
Location: Marriott Marquis Hotel

2:00 PM  Plenary
Circular Economy- A Pathway to Resource Recovery and Recycling: Diran Apelian1; 1Worcester Polytechnic Institute
    The 21st Century is the Innovation era and the onset of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This is the era when we will witness a major shift in the organization of global value chains. As Klaus Schwab, founder of the World Economic Forum has stated – “This is the era in which virtual and physical systems of manufacturing will globally cooperate with each other in a flexible way”. In brief, this is the era of innovation. In this presentation, Prof. Apelian will highlight the context of the paradigm shifts we are witnessing, and propose pathways to move forward. The focus of the presentation is on the circular economy as the way to create value in our waste streams and develop sustainable business models in order for the solutions for sustainability be sustainable and feasible.

2:40 PM  Plenary
Nano-sized Internal Precipitation during Oxidation of an Fe-Cr Alloy in Wet Environment: Fernando Rizzo1; Leonardo Agudo2; Gert Nolze2; Maria Mosqueda2; Axel Kranzmann2; Andre Costa e Silva3; 1INT/MCTI, Brazil; 2BAM; 3UFF
    Formation of nano-sized precipitates immediately under the internal oxide layer in steels and ferrous alloys exposed to oxidizing water vapour atmosphere has been observed by several researchers. In a recent study, the precipitates were identified as lath-shaped Fe-Cr spinel exhibiting a crystallographic orientation relationship with the ferritic matrix. It was proposed that these precipitates could act as a precursor to the formation of the spinel layer observed in the adjacent part of the oxide scale. The occurrence of internal oxidation in Fe–Cr alloys subjected to similar conditions had been previously identified and directly correlated to the presence of water vapour. In the present work, a review of the subject will be given, covering the experimental techniques employed to characterize the resulting microstructure, as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic analyses so far proposed to explain the phenomena, including the essential role of water vapour for the occurrence of the internal oxidation.

3:20 PM Break